2.2.2. a task in an effective way (GrantThornton Organization,

2.2.2. Technology Access

Technology
refers to the methods, skill, process or invention that enables one to
accomplish a task in an effective way (GrantThornton Organization, 2016).
Access refers to the ease of reach or availability of a technological process
or methods to the end utilizer of the technology (GrantThornton Organization,
2016). In summary technology access refers to the ease of availability of
innovations that offer an effective way of doing things. Technology
access is driven largely by availability of study material and/or case studies
of the technology in practice (Ferrada et al., 2013). Technology undergoes 3
major phases once introduced. These include innovation that entails either
coming up with a new product or service or making changes on existing product
and services to be better and more effective (Carr, 2008). Second is adoption
which is the selection of the technology for use by the end user or
organization followed by the end stage is the integration phase that denote the
technology as the main method for us in satisfying the target need (Carr, 2008).

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Technology
access has a major impact on the adoption of new technology in that adoption of
new technology entails making changes that is planned and effectively resourced
(Gallagher, 2017). Technology targets to improve what is currently existing and
requires holistic acceptance by key stake holders for it to succeed.  According to Construction Business Review
(2017); innovations will shape the future of the construction industry due to
the greater benefits associates with technology. Some of the benefits include reduction
in cost; decreased wastage of materials; decreased construction time; standardization
of construction practices that will reduce the aspect of defects and variance
in the end construction product (Construction Business Review, 2017).
Technology access influence the adoption phase of any new technology in that if
it is not available or easily availed; then the adoption becomes low. This is lieu
to the fact that technology disrupts the norm – it changes the existing business
practice and processes thus initially objection to the changes in the norm is
expected (Sargent et al., 2012).

Societal
view plays a role in promoting technological access when it come to new
technology. Social approval of an innovation will determine if it will be
adopted by the various players in the sector (Henderson and Ruikar, 2010). The
perceived stigmatization associated with a new unconventional technology
influence adoption by the end consumer (Henderson and Ruikar, 2010). Furthermore,
technology access is limited to the technical skill set that entails either to
be learnt or research done to drive its interest (LearningAge, 2014). The
overall satisfaction derived from the new innovation plus the resultant level
of need achievement has both positive and negative effects on the adoption of
the new technology (LearningAge, 2014).

Technology
access drives understanding of a new innovation. This relates to the information
available on the new technology and ease of retrieval of the information to the
end user. An innovation is adopted more readily if it is shown to be comparable
better in various significant factors that what is presently existing (Investaura
Management Consultants, 2017). The advantage might be on the overall cost or aspect
of the convenience it offers through a comparison with the substitutes readily
available in the market (Henderson and Ruikar, 2010). Technological advancement
is not only limited to building alone but there is a spill over to other
sectors as well. As technology is continuously dynamic in the changes; it opens
up many other possibilities to the stake holders as it promotes more
efficiency, effectiveness and reduced errors (Henderson and Ruikar, 2010).

In
a study conducted on KRA i Tax system adoption by Mwambia (2015); the author
identified various factors that hamper adoption of new technology. Lack of
understanding of the end positive results and clarity of advantages of the new
technology were identified as significant factors that hamper adoption. Despite
advantages of the new innovation being seen; there needs to be promotional
marketing to bring to the fore the user friendliness as well value adds of the
new technology to the end user so as to increase integration and adoption of new
technology (Mwambia, 2015).

In
the construction context, technology are the procedures and techniques utilized
during construction. The conventional/traditional construction technology
entails the use of brick and mortar while the alternative construction method
is distinguished from the traditional brick and mortar model (Shnell, 2014).
Swift changes have happened in the construction industry resulting in more
innovation, product changes and streamlining of processes. New technology has
had a disruptive influence with construction companies either being forced to
adapt to the changes or collapse on the introduction of new technology (GrantThornton
Organization, 2016). Technology increases overall efficiency in construction as
well as offer a competitive edge in the industry. Some of the benefits of new
technology include reduction of cost especially in labour cost, decreased
material wastage due to recyclability of construction materials, reduced
transport cost and more ecofriendly waste (GrantThornton Organization, 2016).
Some of the emerging technology are 3 D printing, pre fab houses and modular
construction. These are more commonly referred to as ACM (GrantThornton
Organization, 2016).

In
ACM, there is a general lack of focus of scholarly institutions and
construction forums. Focus is more on conventional brick and mortar in training
which in essence is disadvantageous as brick and mortar is gradually becoming
more expensive (Arief et al., 2002). Most construction stakeholders, quantity
surveyors, valuers, engineers, contractors and developers are inclined to
design construction projects based on the conventional brick and mortar, a
factor attributed to limited ACM information to enable decision making (Aftab,
2010). Furthermore, there is insufficient institutionalization of forums for
the players in the ACM industry in comparison to their counterparts in the
conventional construction sector who enjoy more institutionalized approach in
their capacity as well as government support and implementation programs. ACM
is limited to dissemination by NGOs, development institutes and community
organizations which are disjointed in their efforts as there is less
partnership and interaction amongst them resulting in sole efforts rather than
concise spirited advocacy for the uptake of ACM (Aftab, 2010).

According
to Lu (2007), a relationship exists between the availability and ease of access
of sources of information about new products and the successful adoption of new
technology. The appropriate selection of a construction method for use in completion
of a project is a key determinant of success of the project thus the aspect of
technology access that in turn influence choice of technology needs to be
considered. Deficient construction methods when applied lead to loss of efficiency
and effectiveness at the construction sites (Ferrada et al., 2013).