ABSTRACT: Morphometric analysis of a micro-watershed (Chhokranala) area was

ABSTRACT: Morphometric analysis of a micro-watershed (Chhokranala) area was carried out using remote
sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Detailed drainage map of the area was prepared
from the high resolution satellite image IRS 1C /1D, LISS-III and PAN data and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets.
Updated drainage maps were used for the drainage pattern analysis of the study area, The Chhokranala microwatershed
shows a dendritic drainage pattern with moderate drainage texture. The bifurcation ratio in the
watershed indicates normal watershed category. Geology, structural and geomorphological expression of the
micro-watershed control the flow direction of the entire drainage network. The Geospatial applications have been
used to prepare for development of water resources of Chhokranala micro-watershed. In this paper Authors have
computed the morphometric aspects Linear, Areal, Relief , Based on all morphometric parameters analysis that
the erosional development of the area by the stream has progressed well beyond maturity and that lithology has an
influence in the drainage development, these studies are very useful for planning water harvesting and watershed
development.
KEYWORDS: – Watershed, GIS, Remote sensing, Morphometric analysis.
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1. INTRODUCTION: Watershed is a hydrological unit for management and sustainable development of natural
resources 1. It is a natural hydrological entity which allows surface runoff to a defined channel, drain, stream or river at
a particular point 2. Watershed management is the process of formulation carrying out a course of action that involves
modification in the natural system of watershed to achieve specified objectives 3. It further implies appropriate use of
land and water resources of a watershed for optimum production with minimum hazard to natural resources (4),(5).
Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System help in the creation of a database for the watershed which is very
much useful for carrying out spatial analysis there by helping the decision makers in framing appropriate measures for
critically affected areas (6)-(12). It is an effective tool for integration of spatial data to derive useful outputs of microwatersheds
using morphometric analysis (13)-(19). GIS techniques are now a day used for assessing various terrain
and morphometric parameters of the drainage basins and watersheds, as they provide a flexible environment and a
powerful tool for the manipulation and analysis of spatial information.
2. STUDY AREA: The Chhokranala watershed is located about 8kms, from Raipur city. The Chhokranala
Watershed has been selected for the study is located between 81°42′ to 81°45’E longitude and 21°13′ to 21°23’N
latitude. The watershed of the study area covers an area of 1731 ha and falls in the SOI toposheet no.64 G. The
altitude of the watershed varies from 290m to 310m above MSL. The Chhokranala is third order watershed and
comprise of 6 villages.(Fig.I)
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 10
Fig.I Location map of Chhokranala Micro-Watershed, Dist. Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
2.1 GEOLOGY OF THE AREA: The study area is underlain by the geological formation comprising MesoNeoproterozoic
sediments, Raipur group the overlying Raipur group comprises there cycles of argillite-carbonate
sequence, each cycle starting with a carbonate followed by argillite at places with lenticular arenaceous rocks denoting
regressive phase of the sea. These cycles are distinctly developed in the Hirri sub-basin particularly in the southern and
central part. The cycle are represented by (1) Charmuria limestone- GunderdehiShale ; (2) Chandi limestone-Tarenga
shale and (3) Hirri dolomite- Maniar shale. The study area belongs to Chandi formation of Raipur Group. Geology map
has been prepared from the satellite data.The map was corrected after using the geological map of Geological Survey of
India. The regional stratigraphic succession of the study area comprise of Purple and bedded limestone purple argillaceous
stromatollite dolomite, purple and grey stromatolitic limestone and dolomite with flaggy limestone-shale
intercalation/ferruginous glauconitic arenite and shale 20. Geology of the study area is shown in Geology
map.(Fig.II).Local lithostratigraphy shown in below.(Table.I)
Age Super Group Group Formation Member Lithology
Mesoproteroz
oic
Chhattisgarh
Supergroup
Raipur
Group
Chandi
formation
Pendri/
Deodongar
member
Purple and grey
stromatolitic limestone
and dolomite with flaggy
limestone/ferruginous
gluoconite arenite and
shale.
(Table.I local litho-stratigraphy of the area)
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 11
Fig.II Fig.III
Fig.II Geology map of Chhokranala Micro-Watershed, Dist. Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India (Left)
Fig.III Map of Chhokranala Micro-Watershed, Dist. Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India (Right)
2.2 GEOMORPHOLOGY OF THE AREA: The drainage basin is a fundamental geomorphic unit and the watershed
act as a source area for precipitation that eventually provide to the stream channels by various path, which is an important
aspect of geomorphic analysis..Drainage basin morphology has been used to determine the different properties of
elements, their distribution variations, interval, relationship coefficient etc. Remote Sensing studies provide an
opportunity for better observation and more systematic analysis of various hydro-geomorphological units coupled with
geological parameters in the study area which is considered very useful technique in preparing integrated hydrogeomorphological
maps for targeting groundwater. The study area was broadly divided into several hydro-geomorphic
units aimed at demarcating areas of ground water potential zones for development. These hydro geomorphic units
(Table.II) were identified and verified during field checks.
HydroGeomorphology

units
Description Groundwater
prospects
PPS Pediplain Shallow Weathered 42 Moderate
PPM Pediplain Moderately Weathered 42 Good
APS Alluvium Pediplain Surface VeryGood
PD Pediplain Poor
Table II: Details of hydro-geomorphological units and their characteristics
3 METHODOLOGY & DATA USED: In the present paper, the database used for the study purpose includes:-
a. Contour data of Survey of India Topographical map No. 64G/11,64G/12 and 64G/16
b. Drainage data of Survey of India Topographical map No. 64G/11,64G/12 and 64G/16
c. Geological map of the study area.
Topographical sheets of Chhokranala Micro-watershed, having 1:50,000 scale lies is no. 64G/11,64G/12 and
64G/16 published by Survey of India (SOI) of the study area, were collected from Survey of India (SOI),regional
department, Raipur and collateral data such as LISS-III satellite data from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite,
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 12
Geological/Hydrological from Geological Survey of India, Water level, climate Data, rainfall data & census data, etc.
have been used. These satellite images have been georeferenced and merged using ERDAS IMAGIN 2014 Image
Processing Software.(Fig.III) Watershed boundary was demarcated from SOI toposheet on the basis of catchment area
characteristics of Kharun river. Various drains were digitized by using SOI toposheet. Length and area of streams in the
watershed were calculated by using Arc GIS. Horton (1945) 21 technique was used for demarcating the stream order in
the watershed. Linear and areal aspects were calculated using standard formulae explained in Table III (21)-(25). Relief
aspects were calculated using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from Aster (30 m) and formulae explained in Table
III(26)-(28).
Table III. Formulae for calculation of various watershed parameters
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS: The information about basic morphometric parameters such as area (A),
perimeter (P), length (L), and number of streams (N) was obtained from mini-watershed delineated layer, and basin length
PARAMETERS FORMULAE REFERENCES
Linear Aspects
Stream Order (U)

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Stream Length (Lu)

Stream Length Ratio (RL)
Bifurcation Ratio (Rb)
The smallest permanent streams
are called “first order”. Two first
order streams join to form a
larger, second order stream; two
second order streams join to form
a third order, and so on. Smaller
streams entering a higher-ordered
stream do not change its order
number.
The average length of streams of
each of the different orders in a
basin tends closely to drainage
approximate a direct geometric
ratio.
RL= Lu/(Lu-1)
Rb = Nu/(Nu+1)
Strahler 32
Horton 21
Horton 22
Areal Aspects
Stream Frequency (Fs)
Drainage Density (Dd)
Drainage Texture (T)
Elongation ratio (Re)
Circulatory ratio (Rc)
Form factor (Ff )
Fs = ?Nu/A
Dd = Lu/A
T = Dd x Fs
Re = 1.128″A/L
Rc = 4″A/P2
Ff = A/L2
Horton 21
Horton 21
Smith 24
Schumm 25
Strahler 32
Horton 21
Relief Aspects
Relief ( R)
Relief Ratio (Rr)
Slope (Sb)
Gradient Ratio (Gr)
R = H – h
Rr = R/L
Sb = (H-h)/L’
Gr = (H-h)/L
Hadley and Schumm 26
Schumm 27
Mesa 28
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 13
(Lb) was calculated from stream length, while the bifurcation ratio (Rb) was calculated from the number of streams. Other
morphometric parameters were calculated using the equations as described in Table 1. Linear parameters have a direct
relationship with erodibility by 19 the higher the value, the more the erodibility. The highest value of the linear
parameter was ranked 1, second highest value ranked 2 and so on the contrary, the shape parameters have an inverse
relation with linear parameters, so that the lower their value, the more the erodibility (29), (30). Thus, lowest value of
shape parameter was rated as rank 1 and second lowest as rank 2 and so on. Compound factor was then worked out by
summing all the ranks of linear parameters as well as shape parameters and then dividing by number of parameters.
(Table.III)
In the study, the entire watershed has been selected for the morphometric analysis under the following below:
a) Linear aspects one dimension.
b) Areal aspects two dimension.
c) Relief aspect three dimension.
4.1.1 LINEAR ASPECTS: The drainage network in watershed was analyzed to calculate various liner parameters like
stream order, stream number, stream length, and bifurcation ratio.
4.1.1.1 STREAM ORDER: There are four different techniques for ordering stream: Gravelius (1914), Horton (1964) and
Strahler (1957, 1964). The Chhokranala Micro-watershed has been ranked according to Strahler (1964) 31 which are
slightly modified by Horton’s system. According to this system the junction of two 1st order channels produces channel
segments of 2nd order, two 2nd order streams join to form a segment of 3rd order and so on. When two channels of
different order join then the higher order is maintained. (Table.IV)
4.1.1.2 STREAM NUMBER (NU): The total no. of streams present in each order is stream number. It is found that as the
stream order increases the stream number decreases in all sub basins. There are 58 streams of first order, 32 streams of
second order, 15 streams of third order, 1 streams of fourth order, and then the stream of the fifth order is the Kharun
River. (Table.IV)
4.1.1.3 STREAM LENGTH (LU) AND AVERAGE STREAM LENGTH (LU1): The total length of individual stream
segments of each order is the stream length of that order. The stream length in each order increases exponentially with
increasing stream order. Total length of first order streams is 94.77 km, second order streams have length of 16.65 km,
third order streams have length of 15.65 km and fourth order streams have length of 14.78 km in the Chhokranala Microwatershed.
Mean stream length is the ratio of total length of a particular ordered stream to total no of streams of same
order and is given in below (Table.IV).
Table IV. Linear aspects of Chhokranala Micro-watershed
4.1.1.4 STREAM LENGTH RATIO (RL): Horton (1945) 21 proposed the stream length ratio, which is the ratio of the
mean length of a stream if any given order to the mean length of a stream of the next lower order, based on the fact that
mean length of a stream of any given order is always greater than the mean length of a stream of the next lower order. The
length ratio gives an idea about the relative permeability of the rock formation in a micro-watershed. Horton’s law (1945)
of stream length states that mean stream length segments of each of the successive orders of a basin tends to approximate
a direct geomorphic series with streams length towards higher order of streams.The stream length ratio of the present
Parameter
Stream Order
1
st Order 2
nd Order 3
rd Order 4
th Order 5
th Order
Number of streams,Nu 58 32 15 1 –
Total no.of streams, ?Nu 106
Bifurcation ratio,Rb 1.81 3.55 4.5 2 –
Stream length, Lu 94.77 18.65 15.65 14.78 –
Total length of stream, ?Lu 141.85
Mean stream length (Lsm) 1.63 2.52 5.21 14.78 –
Stream Length Ratio RL 0.31 2.06 2.83 –
Stream frequency 5.48
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 14
study area reveals that increasing trend in the length ratio from lower order to higher order .its shows low permeable
formation, the stream length ratio increases with increasing stream order. During the study it is found that the whole
watershed has the stream length ratio in the range of 0.3 to 2.83, (Table IV).
4.1.1.5 BIFURCATION RATIO (RB): Bifurcation ratio is the ratio of number of streams of order (u) to the number of
streams of higher order (u+1) 31. Chow (1964) 31 stated that the bifurcation ratio values lies between 2 to 5 for those
watersheds where geological structures do not have more influence on the drainage pattern. Mean bifurcation ratio of
Chhokranala watershed is 3.06. The higher Rb for watershed is the result of large variation in frequencies between
successive orders and indicates mature topography. (Table IV).
Fig. IV Stream Order Map of Chhokranala Micro-Watershed, Dist. Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
4.1.2 AREAL ASPECTS: The areal aspects are two dimensional properties of a basin. It is possible to delineate the area
of the basin which contributes water to each stream segment. Total area of the basin is 1713 ha. The areal aspects of the
drainage basin such as drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), drainage texture (T),) circularity ratio (Rc) and form
factor ratio (Rf) were calculated.
4.1.2.1 DRAINAGE DENSITY (DD): Drainage density is the total length of all the streams in the watershed to the area
of watershed. It helps in determining the permeability and porosity of the watershed and an indicator of landform elements
in stream eroded topography. The drainage density of the Chhokranala watershed area is 3.25.The drainage density
indicates the closeness of spacing of channels, thus providing a quantitative measure of the average length of stream
channel for the whole basin. High drainage density is the resultant of impermeable subsurface material, sparse vegetation.
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 15
Low drainage density leads to coarse drainage texture while high drainage density leads to fine drainage texture 31.
(Table.V)
4.1.2.2 STREAM FREQUENCY (FS): Stream frequency directed related to the lithology that is indicated high stream
frequency shows impermeable geology and low stream frequency indicating high permeable geology.The number of
stream segments per unit area is termed as stream frequency or channel frequency or Drainage Frequency (Fs) 21. Total
stream frequency of study area is 5.48 km-2. (Table.V). In study area lithology is low permeable as per geology of the
study area. So that stream frequency is high.
4.1.2.3 DRAINAGE TEXTURE (T): Drainage texture may be defined as the total number of stream segments of all
order in a basin per perimeter of the basin. It is important to understand geomorphology which means the relative spacing
of drainage lines. Drainage texture depends on the underlying lithology, infiltration capacity and relief aspect of the
terrain and on natural factors such as climate, rainfall, vegetation, rock and soil type, relief and stage of development.
Smith (1950) 24 has classified drainage texture into 5 different classes i.e., very coarse (8). The drainage texture of whole watershed is course. (Table.V)
4.1.2.4 FORM FACTOR (RF): The ratio of the basin area to the square of basin length is called the form factor. The
form factor of the Chhokranala watershed is 0.41 km-1. It is used as a quantitative expression of the shape of basin form
which is stretched elliptical. (Table.V)

4.1.2.5 CIRCULATORY RATIO (RC): The circularity ratio is the ratio of the area of the basin to the area of a circle
having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin (Miller, 1953)33. It is a significant ratio, which indicates
the dendritic stage of a micro-watershed. Its low, medium and high values are indicative of the youth, mature and old
stages of the life cycle of the tributary basins. The high value of the ratio is more influenced by length, frequency and
gradient of streams of various orders and further depends on the geological structures, land use / land cover, climate, relief
and slope of the basin. In the present study, the circularity ratio (Table V) is 0.530. High circularity ratio is observed in
Chhokranala micro-watershed indicate that they are more or less circular in shape and are characterized by high to
moderate relief and drainage system is not structurally controlled.
Table .V Aerial aspects of Chhokranala Micro-watershed
4.1.3 RELIEF ASPECTS: Linear and areal features have been considered as the two dimensional aspects on a plan. The
third dimension introduces the concept of relief. The channel gradient is estimated from the contour crossings in the
topographical sheet. It helps in determining the downstream increase of discharge which enables the sediment load to be
transported on progressively changing slopes and hence the transport capacity.
4.1.3.1 RELIEF RATIO (RH): It is the ratio of relief and length of the watershed 33. It is the ratio of basin relief to
basin length. While high values are characteristic of hilly regions low values are characteristic of pediplains and valley.

Relative Relief =

The relief ratio of the watershed of Chhokranala is 0.074. It has been observed that areas with low to moderate
relief and slop are characterized by moderate value of relief ratios. Low value of relief ratios are mainly due to the
resistant basement rocks of the basin and low degree of slope. (Table.VI)
Parameter Value
Basin area (Au) 17.31km2
Length of the basin (Lb) 27km
Basin perimeter (P) 53
Circulatory ratio (Rc) 0.530
Form factor (Rf) 0.41
Drainage density (Dd) 3.25
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 16
4.1.3.2 GRADIENT RATIO: Gradient ratio is the total drop in elevation from the source to the mouth of the trunk
channels in each drainage basin. In the present study, gradient ratio of Chhokranala watershed is 0.074 which is very low.
Relief ratio indicates that the watershed is moderately sloping and the intensity of erosion process is low. 33. (Table.VI)
4.1.3.3 SLOPE: Slope analysis is an important parameter in geographic studies. Slope elements are controlled by turn in
Climatomorphogenic processes in rocky area Understanding the slope delivery of different resistance. An understanding
of slope distribution is essential as a slope map provides data for planning, settlement, mechanization of agriculture,
deforestation, planning of engineering structures, morph conservation practices etc. 34. In the present study, Aster DEM
was used to prepare slope map, DEM, and aspect Map. The slope grid is identified as the maximum rate of change. Using
the method from each cell in the value of its neighbor’s described in the Burrough 35. The slope varies from 0 degrees
to 3 degrees. . (Table.VI) (Fig.V)
Fig.V Slope Map of Chhokranala Micro-Watershed, Dist. Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Parameter Value
Highest point, Z 310m
Lowest point, Z 290m
Total basin relief, H= Z- z 20m
Relief ratio, Rh = H/ lb 0.074
Gradient ratio Rg 0.074
Table VI:-Relief aspects of Chhokranala Micro-watershed
5. CONCLUSIONS: The Present study concluded that remotely sensed data and GIS based approach in evaluation of
drainage morphometric parameters and their influence on landforms, soils and eroded land characteristics at watershed
level is more appropriate than the conventional methods.The morphometric analyses were carried out through
measurement of linear, areal and relief aspects of the Chhokranala Micro-watershed. The morphometric analysis of the
drainage network of the Chhokranala Micro-watershed show dendritic with moderate drainage texture. The variation in
Choubey & Diwan/ International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Vol.5, No. 2 17
stream length ratio might be due to change in slope and topography. The bifurcation ratio in the Chhokranala Microwatershed
indicates normal watershed category and the presence of moderate drainage density suggesting that it has
moderate permeable sub-soil, and coarse drainage texture. The value of stream frequency indicate that the Chhokranala
Micro-watershed show positive correlation with increasing stream population with respect to increasing drainage density.
The value of form factor and circulator ration suggests that Chhokranala Micro-watershed is less elongated.
Morphometric analysis of Chhokranala Micro-watershed of Raipur District of Chhattisgarh reveals much valuable
information to set up watershed developmental plan for this area. This region is populated and draught prone. In the
present scenario where water resources are becoming scarce, this exercise of assigning various attributes to the drainage
basin plays a significant role in watershed development as well as locating sites for water harvesting structures.
6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I am grateful to Dr. Sudarshan Tiwari, Director, National Institute of Technology, Raipur,
for providing necessary facilities to carry out this work. I am highly thankful faculties and fello