Banana subtropical regions of India and belongs to the

Banana
is one of the major food crop contributing significantly to the national
economy. Banana production has been improved in most of the countries by either
importing promising cultivars or through identification of superior and stable
local cultivars.

Banana
is an important fruit crop cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions
of India and belongs to the family Musaceae. India is the largest producer of
bananas with around 858.0 thousand hectares with an annual production of about
29163.0 thousand metric tonnes (NHB, 2016). Bananas are also used as the
sources of beverages, textile, technical, medical, ritual and ornamental
materials (Rossel, 1998). Alcohol, beer, vinegar and wine are produced from
fruits of banana. After harvesting, stems and leaves of the plantain are made
into silage and used as feeds (Nelson et al., 2006).

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The
banana production in India is hampered by various biotic and abiotic factors,   decreasing soil fertility which results in
yield decline phenomena. To overcome these constraints, various efforts are in
progress at National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB), Trichy and also at
state agricultural universities.

India
is one of the major centers of domesticated banana origin, with a lot of
diversity especially in ‘B rich genomes’ of northeastern India. B genome, can
be used in banana breeding programs because it is a source of resistance to
different diseases. Fig 1. Top ten banana producing states The family Musaceae
consists of three genera namely, Ensete,
Musella and Musa (Lassoudiere,
2007).

The genus Ensete has eight species and the genus Musella is a monotypic
genera comprises the only one known species that is Musella splendia. The genus Musa
includes approximately 1000 species (Wong et
al., 2002; Heslop -Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007). The taxonomy of Musa
is controversial because of several factors including the sterility, ancient
domestication and hybrid origins of the cultivated varieties (Nelson et al.,
2006). The taxonomists divided these taxa into five sections namely, Eumusa,
Australimusa, Rhodochlamys, Callimusa and Incertaesedis (Uma et al., 2005).

 

The most important banana cultivar
groups have arose from the section Eumusa and were originate from the species Musa accuminata an – AA genome and Musa Balbisiana an- BB genome
(Lassoudiere, 2007). The different combinations of these wild species resulted
in the development of a broad spectrum of genome groups from diploids to
tetraploids; AA, BB, AB, AAB, ABBB, ABB, AABB, etc. (Uma et al., 2005). The
present cultivars of bananas and plantains belong to diploid and triploid
groups (Uma et al., 2005; Lassoudiere, 2007).

The majority of banana producers are
small-scale farmers cultivating for home consumption or for local markets.
Because bananas and plantains produce fruit year-round and they are the valuable
food source during the hunger season. The different varieties of banana
cultivated in different states of India is shown in the Table 1. Within the
Karnataka state the farmers residing in the vicinity of river Kaveri, Tunga,
Bhadra, Krishna, Sharavathi and Kumudvati are cultivating different varieties
of banana. The total area under the cultivation of banana is 5.32 thousand
hectare, with a production of 141.13 lakh million tonnes is shown in the Table
2.

Banana production in different districts
of Karnataka state for the year 2014-15 Source: Department of Agricultural
cooperation and Farmers welfare Table 1: Banana Varieties grown in different
states of India: State _Varieties grown _ _Andhra Pradesh _Dwarf Cavendish,
Rasthali, Robusta, Thellachakrakeli, Karpoora Poovan, Amritpant, Chakrakeli,
Yenagu Bontha and Monthan _ _Assam _Jahaji Chini Champa, Malbhog, Borjahaji
(Robusta), (Dwarf Cavendish), Honda, Chinia (Manohar), Kanchkol, Bhimkol,
Manjahaji, Jatikol, Digjowa, Kulpait, Bharat Moni _ _Bihar _Dwarf Cavendish,
Kothia , Alpon, Chinia , Chini Champa, Muthia, Gauria Malbhig, _ _Gujarat
_Dwarf Cavendish, Lacatan, Harichal (Lokhandi), Gandevi Selection, Basrai,
Robusta, G-9, Harichal, Shrimati _ _Jharkand _Basrai, Singapuri _ _Karnataka
_Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Monthan, Elakkibale _ _Kerala
_Nendran (Plantain), Palayankodan (Poovan), Rasthali, Monthan, Red Banana,
Robusta _ _Madya Pradesh _Basrai _ _Maharashtra _Dwarf Cavendish, Basrai,
Robusta, Lal Velchi, Safed Velchi, Rajeli Nendran, Grand Naine, Shreemanti, Red
Banana _ _Odisha _Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Champa, Patkapura (Rasthali) _
_Tamil Nadu _Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Nendra, Red Banana, Ney Poovan,
Monthan, Karpuavalli, Matti, Moris, Peyan and Hill Banana _ _West Bengal _Champa,
Mortman , Dwarf Cavendish, Giant Governor, Kanthali, Singapuri, Amrut Sagar and
Lacatan _ _Source: National Horticulture Board

 

Musa paradisaca Monthan cv. Karibale:
Musa paradisaca Monthan cv. Karibale is one of the indigenous variety of banana
commonly cultivated in malnad region of Karnataka (Shivamogga, Chikmagalur and
Karwar). The fruits are angular with prominent ridges and light greenish in
color. In traditional system of medicine the local practitioners residing in
the vicinity of the forest ranges of Western Ghats using the fruits and
pseudostem to cure renal problems.

 

The plant has gained much importance in the
ethnomedical practices due to its therapeutic action against atherosclerosis,
hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunctions, diarrhea,
hypertension, spur, uremia, gout, hypertension, dysentery, cardiac disease and
also used to cure renal disorders in certain clinical conditions.

 

In spite of its immense medicinal value
the cultivar have not been researched in detail nor exploited commercially and
this culinary variety till now restricted to backyards. The therapeutic
property of this species has not been investigated so far. Further, the fiber
of the pseudostem has been used in small scale industries to extract fibers and
to prepare plates.

So in the present investigation the
cultivar Karibale has been selected to investigate the phytoconstituents and
therapeutic efficacy. Classification: Kingdom: Plantae Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Liliopsida Order : Zingiberales Family : Musaceae Genus : Musa Species
: Musa paradisiaca (Musa accuminata X balbisiana) Variety : Monthan cv.
Karibale

 

The Musa paradisiaca Monthan cv Karibale
is also known as ‘Mara bale’ and ‘Male bale’ which grows to a height of 3.0 –
4.0 m and the fruit skin is thick, yellowish-green in color with slight bloom
but becomes black or blotched very soon. The fruit has a particular flavor
which is delicious to eat. Due to the low yielding capacity with 50-60 fruits
in a bunch this culinary variety is restricted to back yards, areca gardens and
coffee estates (Yegna Narayan Aiyer, 1954). The plantain is grown largely in
the heavy rain fall regions of Kerala and Karnataka (Fig 2. A & B). Fig 2.

In
order to develop new cultivars with elite characteristics and disease
resistance by conventional method breeders faces the problem of space,
prolonged time for life cycle, protection of genome purity by gene
contamination etc. The conventional plant breeding in edible Musa spp. from
their vegetative parts viz., corms, large and small suckers, and sword suckers
(Cronauer and Krikorian, 1984; Arias, 1992) has been practiced from ancient
times because most of the cultivars are seedless or seed sterile and their
genetic diversity is very limited ((Duangkongsan and Promtab, 2014).

Banana propagation through conventional
breeding method is not an ideal method because, the suckers may carry bacteria,
fungi, viruses, weevils and nematodes (Arias, 1992; Sagi et al., 1998).
Micropropagation technique has played a key role in producing high quality and
disease free planting materials (Rowe and Rosales, 1996; Vuylsteke et al.,
1997).

 

To date, many investigator successfully
employed tissue culture protocol on a wide range of banana cultivars using
different explants viz : apical meristem (Mante and Tepper, 1983), shoot-tip
(Kanchanapoom and Chanadang, 2001; Buah et al., 2010), floral explants
(Cronauer and Krikorian, 1985; Cote et al.,1996; Ganapathi et al.,1999; Gomez
et al.,2001), protoplast culture (Panis et al.,1993), embryos culture (Escalant
and Teisson, 1989), organ formation (Jarret et al.,1985) and immature fruits as
a explants (John Nelson Buah, et al.,2000; Msogoya et al.,2006). Many species
and cultivars of banana protocols are standardized and commercialized for
clonal multiplication from the apical meristem (Rout et al., 2000).

Somaclonal variations:

Appearance of off-types is often
heritable during the in vitro
multiplication process which reduce the commercial value of banana (Oh et al.,
2007). Supplementation of exogenous hormones in the culture medium are
responsible for somaclonal variation in Musa species (Smith, 1988; Zaffari et
al., 1998).

 

The reports on effects of plant growth
regulators are seem to be inconsistent and the factors have no effect on the
rate of somaclonal variation (Reuveni et al., 1993). But, many authors reported
that hormones affect the rate of somaclonal variation both directly and indirectly
(Stover, 1987; Karp, 1994; Damasco et al., 1998). AFLP is known to be highly
reproducible, does not require prior sequence information and allow the
identification of a greater number of polymorphisms than RAPD (Gort et al.,
2006; Agarwal et al., 2008).

Several studies suggested that the AFLP
markers is effective for genetic diversity analysis in Musa and the level of
polymorphism comparatively higher than other markers used in the Musa diversity
analysis (Crouch et al.,1999; Wong et al.,2001; Kour et al.,2011; Tripathy et
al.,2016). Since, the protocol for mass multiplication of plantlets for this
indigenous banana cultivar Monthan cv. Karibale has not yet been standardized
so far.

In the present study, an attempt has
been made to develop high frequency regeneration protocol and evaluation of
morpho-agronomic characteristics in the farmyard. An attempt has also been made
to evaluate the somaclonal variations of the M. paradisiaca Monthan cv Karibale
leaf calli regenerants using AFLP markers.

Medicinal property:

Plants are major source of natural
antioxidants and been used for the treatment of kidney failure in traditional
system of medicine throughout the world. Medicinal plants are package for human
society from the dawn of civilization and used as a primary tool in the
treatment of various ailments.

This
indigenous knowledge, passed down from generation to generation helped in
exploration of different medicinal plants to find the scientific basis of their
traditional uses. Despite all the marvelous advancements in modern medicine
herbalists/ local vaidyas still practice herbal medicines for treating renal
problems. Recent studies on medicinal plants found to be effective in
ameliorating organ toxicities (Muhammad et al., 2008; Abdel Raheem et al.,
2010; Rafieian and Baradaran, 2013). Co-administration of medicinal plant
extracts possessing nephroprotective activity along with different nephrotoxic
agents may reduce their toxicity (Mishra et al., 2014; Rodrigues et al., 2014;
Shin et al., 2014).

 

Medicinal plants are have curative
properties and therapeutic values due to the presence of various complex
phytochemical compounds. Therefore, documentation and exploration of
nephroprotective plants has become utmost importance in the current scenario
(Bharti et al., 2012). The therapeutic efficacy of Musa paradisiaca Monthan cv.
Karibale has been documented for many beneficial effects in the management of
several diseased conditions. In folklore medicine, unripe fruit is useful in
the treatment of anemia, management of diabetes, renal and liver disorders (Iweala
et al., 2011). The stem juices have been reported for dissolving preformed
stones and in preventing the formation of stones in the urinary bladder of rats
(Kailash and Varalakshmi, 1992; Swathi et al., 2011).

 

Pharmacological evaluation:

The incidence of kidney failure has been
recorded doubled over the last fifteen years. Currently, over one million
people worldwide are alive on dialysis or with a functioning graft. Kidney
disease ranks as the ninth leading cause of death and approximately, nineteen million
adults have suffered from chronic kidney disease and an estimated 80,000
persons have chronic kidney failure diagnosed annually in India (Raja
sundararajan, 2014).

Kidneys are more susceptible to damage
caused by various useful drugs and environmental contaminants and industrial
toxicants (Olagunju et al.,2009). Most nephrotoxic drugs leads to acute failure
in kidney function, which is detected by lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
and renal blood flow (RBF), increasing serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN), and tubular necrosis.

Over the past several years, drug
induced nephrotoxicity is more common among certain patients leading to chronic
interstitial injury and papillary necrosis (Preminger, 2007; Wolf, 2011) and
also number of persons suffering from renal problems is increasing.

 

Exposure to chemical reagents like
ethylene glycol, cisplatin, cyclosporine, carbon tetra chloride and number of
antibiotics including penicillin, gentamicin, cephalosporins and tetracyclines
induces nephrotoxicity (Geevasinga et al., 2006; Ramya pydi, 2011). The mild
renal impairment developed by the nephrotoxicants is always reversible. The
drug –induced acute kidney injury (AKI) affects up to 50% of critically ill
patients and is independently associated with both short- and long-term
morbidity and mortality (Kane Gill et al., 2014; Kirwan et al., 2015).

 

AKI carries a significant short- and
long-term burden both for individuals and society at large, with a high
mortality rate, increased resource use and the development of chronic kidney
disease in >30% of survivors, which often results in end-stage kidney
disease that requires dialysis or transplantation (Lewington et al., 2013).