CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION, IMPLICATION, CONCLUSIONS5.0 IntroductionThis chapter starts with the summary of the study and its procedures. Recommendations for further study are made based on the limitations found and implication for practice are described in detail. The overall conclusions are drawn based on the findings and discussion in Chapter 4. The last section concludes this chapter. 5.1 Summary of the ProcedureThe aim of this study is to investigate the factors contributing to disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson within Malaysian ESL context. Three research objectives were developed: (1) to investigate the factors contributing to disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson, (2) to discover the dominant factors contributing to disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson and (3) to examine the significant differences between genders and factors contributing to disaffection and engagement during English lesson. Through reviews of previous research, five main factors were identified to be the sources of disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson which comprised of: cognitive, affective, behaviour, language activities, and student-teacher relationship. Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002) was selected to support the analysis behind the factors contributing to disaffection among students during English lesson along with Motivational Conceptualization of Engagement and Disaffection (Skinner, 2016). To answer these research questions, a descriptive quantitative research approach was employed by using a 32-item self-administered online questionnaire via Google Form. 135 students took part in the study within one-week time frame. The data collected were computed into SPSS version 23 for statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis was used to summarise data into frequencies, means, standard deviations and percentages. An independent sample t-test was used to compare means between male and female students to determine whether there is a statistical evidence that associated means of the population are significantly different. 5.2 Summary of the Key FindingsResearch Question 1Students were cognitively engaged by knowing English lesson is useful for the real world but lacking on having a clear purpose in learning the language. Through affective construct, students were interested in learning English however they not fully satisfied of what they were learning. Students were behaviourally engaged when they try to use English during the lesson nonetheless they faced difficulties in paying attention to lesson all the time. Students like English lesson in general, nevertheless they had less preference towards writing activities. Students revealed to be engaged when their teachers ensured that they understood the lesson, even so they became disaffected when their teacher did not consider their feelings during English lesson.Research Question 2Cognitive is found to be the dominant factor contributing to engagement whereas student-teacher relationship factor is revealed to prevalent for moderate disaffection during English lesson. Research Question 2There is a significant difference between male and female students in cognitive factors. Female students were engaged better cognitively than male students. Other factors such as affective, behaviour, language activities, and student-teacher relationship are found not to be significant between male and female students. ?5.3 Recommendation for Further StudyResearch on disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson within Malaysian ESL context is still limited hence there are profuse opportunities for future studies. First, higher response rate to questionnaire is required so that the results can be generalized with confidence to the entire population. Since the instrument was administered online, some students may not have the access to computer devices or the internet connection. Therefore, to increase response rate to online questionnaire, researchers might want to consider to book computer labs in school and conduct data collection during the school term where the students are readily available. Second, using a mixed-mode of both quantitative and qualitative research approach will be able to provide greater insights towards disaffection and engagement among students. This study only utilizes quantitative questionnaires which include close-ended information in measuring attitudes, behaviours or perceptions. Thus, the findings from this study did not manage to provide answers which captured their true feelings and experiences during English lesson. In contrast, qualitative consists of open-ended information that can be gathered through interviews but the findings are difficult to be generalized. Both approaches have their weaknesses, mixed method strategies can counteract these shortcoming by allowing for both explorations and analysis within the same study.?5.4 Implication for PracticeThe purpose of this study is to investigate the factors contributing to disaffection and engagement among student during English lesson. The outcomes of this study have two implications for practice on English teachers in Malaysia. This study has looked into the factors contributing to disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson. It is important to recognize students’ characteristics beyond their observable behaviours because disaffection and engagement also can be in the form cognitive and affective. Every student has distinctive needs, interest, and multiple intelligences, hence their preference towards language activities may differ to one another. A positive student-teacher relationship is crucial to ensure students stay motivated and engaged during English lesson throughout the entire school terms. Teaching Pedagogy From the findings, writing and literature were the least preferred language activities during English lesson. In school, these two activities are heavily influenced by examination stakes. Teachers are required to be well-equipped with effective pedagogy so that students engaged during English lesson. Activities conducted related to writing and literature should encourage students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioural engagement throughout the entire lesson. Most students like English lesson in general, however, lack of clear purpose in learning English contributes to disaffection during the lesson. Hence, teachers play a critical role in explaining to students on both short and long-term goals of learning English. It important to for teachers to state learning objectives explicitly so that students have clear purposes during English lesson. English Language CurriculumThe outcomes of this study can be used by policy makers to develop targeted interventions at English Language Curriculum. Students acknowledge the importance of learning English for the real world and ahead of life. Policy makers may want to develop English Language Curriculum which promote students’ motivation to stay engaged throughout the lesson. In order to sustain students’ engagement and to prevent disaffection, five factors that have been identified in this study: cognitive, affective, behaviour, language activities, and student-teacher relationship should be taken into consideration so that a high quality, relevant and connected to student’s interests, genders, aspirations, as well as life experiences. 5.5 ConclusionIn this chapter, summary of procedures and key findings of the research are presented. Based on the limitations of the study, recommendations are made for future studies. Implications for practice are described in detail. Conclusions for the study are drawn based on the overall chapters of the study.?