Design Another well-known adverse effect is allergic contact dermatitis.

Design and development of organic
luminescent materials is significant area of materials chemistry. That contains
high fluorescence quantum yield and excellent photostability creates them
extensively used in more applications1. The Photo-luminescence character
of pyrene derivatives itself them tremendous luminogens and these are widely useful
as environmental with different morphology. These type of molecules act as a tunable
emission behavior in numerous microenvironments due to their polarity sensitive
vibrionic emission, longer fluorescence lifetime, high charge carrier mobility,
possessing large planar surface through effective ?–? stacking between the
molecules and also chemical stability 2-3.

            Detection
of biologically and environmentally important metal ions in solution has always
been important in supramolecular and medicinal chemistry4-10. The
majority of supramolecular morphologies are derived from non-covalent
interactions such as, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, ?-? stacking and
dipole-dipole interactions11. Among them, ?-? stacking
interactions are found to be widely used for the construction of aggregation
type three dimensional supramolecular designs in both chemical and biological
systems 12-13. Many reports are available on the detection of
various analytes including transition metal ions at a wide range of pH values 14-18.

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            Nickel
is an essential metal for supporting life. Nickel is believed to be the second
most abundant element in the earth’s core, with iron the most abundant by a
large margin. Nickel is widely employed in modern industry in conjunction with
other metals for the production of alloys for coins, jewellery, and stainless
steel. It is also used for plating, battery production, as a catalyst, etc.
Workers are exposed to nickel at all stages of the processing of
nickel-containing products through air, water or skin contacts. For example,
the exposure to airborne nickel-containing particles has long been known to
cause acute respiratory symptoms ranging from mild irritation and inflammation
of the respiratory system to bronchitis, asthma, and pulmonary fibrosis and
edema. Another well-known adverse effect is allergic contact dermatitis. The
indicated health problems caused by nickel exposure are mediated by an active
change in the expression of genes that control inflammation, the response to
stress, cell proliferation or cell death. Loss of nickel homeostasis is harmful
to prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms alike and there is limited
epidemiological evidence that soluble nickel acted as an enhancer of cancer
risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel19.
Although the contributions of nickel homeostasis to mammalian health and
diseases remain largely unexplored20, excess nickel accumulation can affect
respiratory and immune systems21-22. Therefore, it is very
important to detect nickel ions. Advances in both electronics and mechanics
have yielded high-tech facilities such as inductively coupled plasma-optical
emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)23-24, microwave induced plasma
(MIP)21, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS)25-27,
flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)28-29,
spectrophotometry30-31, voltammetry and inductively coupled
plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)32-34.  As this metal ion is an environmental
pollutant and yet also an essential trace element in biological systems35-36,
the determination of nickel ion is thus important. Fluorescence sensing is the
most efficient approach to detect the low concentration of analytes and many
efforts were devoted to the development of small fluorescent chemical sensors
for the detection metal ions37. Very few investigations have
reported for the detection of nickel ions when compared to other heavy metal
ions38-39, and also they involve a “turn-off” sensing. In
addition, most of the reported probes were utilized only in pure organic
solvents. To develop practical, commercial applications, chemosensors should
have high sensitivity and selectivity, and ideally should be able to operate in
an aqueous medium. Chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) is an attractive
designing principle for developing new fluorescent chemosensors40.
These unique aspects prompted us to report a one-pot synthesis,
characterization using NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic techniques of a novel,
4-phenyl-2-(pyren-1-yl)-1,8-naphthyridine (Pyr-1), in the presence of Qun-CD
and photophysical applications41. The desired product was
confirmed fascinatingly, this chemoreceptor (Pyr-1) displayed astonishing
bio-analytical applications in living systems.