and Financial Analysis of Grid Tied PV System for a Small Area Premise Using
Rahaman1, K.K. Borman1, M.E Hossain1, K.C. Ray1
of Electronics & Communication Engineering,
Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
To reduce pressure of the buring fussial fuel to generate
electricity, solar energy is best alternating source to produce electricity.
Solar energy is alo safe for environment. The main aim of
this paper is to design, financial analyses of a grid connected system and to
reduce CO2 emission. We analyzed different parameters of a solar
system and proposed an 80 KW rooftop solar plant which satisfy our need demand
of electricity for an administrative building of HSTU. The proposed plant
produced annual 148.5 MW electricity and annual reduction of 1819.170 tons of
carbon footprint. The performance of the plant is measured by PVsyst software.
From PVsyst software simulation we found that, the system not only satisfy our
annual need demand of 68.8 MW but also we will be sold annual 79.7 MW
electricity to the grid.
PVsyst, simulation, PV system, HSTU, CO2 emission.
Men have been habituated to burn
fossil fuels to generate energy from long time ago. It has become an alarming
problem that climate has been changed day by day due to increasing use of the
fossil fuels. Burning coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels
is used to produce electricity, but which pollutes two vital elements like air
and water in our environment. Renewal
energy is alternating source to produce energy and it do not any bad impact to
environment and keep safe of our environment. With a population of 166.37
million, Bangladesh is a one of the most densely populated country a. Rapid urbanization fueled by
stable economic growth has created a huge demand of energy. In Bangladesh, the
electricity comes from burning gas or fuel. The
utility electricity sector in Bangladesh has one National Grid with an
installed capacity of 15,379 MW as on February’ 2017 b. The Government
of Bangladesh has planned to increase power generation and the demand for
electricity in Bangladesh is projected to reach 34,000 MW by 2030.There is an
ambitious target to generate 2000 MW of renewable energy electricity by 2021
and whose at least 10% would be met from renewable sources including solar
power system c. For this purpose, the government is currently working to
install solar panel-based power projects connected with the national grid,
which will have a 572 MW capacity d. From the statistics of solar system use
in the country we assume that 1000 MW energy might be come from solar system to
meet the 2000 MW renewable energy target. There is an urgent need to employ
renewable energy in every possible form and move toward the sustainable energy
sector. Photovoltaic system is
one of the most important and premising technology that are able to produce the
electricity to meet the electricity demand of the whole world e. Since last
decade, the photovoltaic industry grows more than 40% per year due to decrease
in cost of PV system f. There are two effective systems for solar
photovoltaic plant design. One is stand-alone system and other is grid
connected system. Karki et al. have done an analysis for grid connected PV
system in Kathmandu and Berlin by using PVsyst software g. In the simulation
it is found that Kathmandu is able to produce more solar energy than Berlin
with the same system. Irwan et al. have done a study to analyze for a 150kW
solar power plant h. In the study it found that Cyprus has a high number of
sunny days in a year so investment of the solar plant is very effective. Shukla
et al. i performed the design and analysis of rooftop solar PV system for
Hostel building at MANIT, and determined the payback period of 8.2 years.
Raturi et al. j studied the grid connected PV system for Pacific island
countries in case study of 45 kWp GCPV system located at the University of the
South Pacific (USP) marine campus in Fiji. Further, Dawn et al. k showed the
recent developments of India in the solar sector. Matiyali et al. l evaluated the
performance of a proposed 400 KW grid connected solar PV plant at Dhalipur and
they calculated server types of power loss and performance ratio of the PV
system.Value of the performance ratio obtained was 78.1% from the results
practicality of the solar photovoltaic power plant was discussed.
From literature review, we found that PVsyst software is one
of the best software for simulation of sizing, optimizing, loss analysis and
financial analyses of a grid connected photovoltaic system m. In this
paper we calculated financial analyses and did a simulation with PVsyst V6.43 software. Proper sizing and calculation of grid connected PV
system is done for the administrative building of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science
& Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. In most of the previous
research studies, we found that research has mainly been done in sizing and
optimizing of solar systems but cost analysis is not carried out. Thus this
research is aimed at fulfilling the research gap which is missing in previous
2.1 Geographical location of the site
Hajee Mohammad Danesh
Science & Technology University located in Dinajpur, Bangladesh. It lies on
25.70º N. latitude and 88.65º E
longitude on the eastern bank of the river Punarbhaba and 42 meter above
sea level n. The total area of the campus is 85 acres. The entire campus
consists of administrative and academic building, library, residential
accommodation for students and staff. The rooftop area of the administrative
building is 1200 m2. Figure a, show how the sun impacts in the
location of building throughout the year. X axis show solar azimuth. Azimuth is
the angular distance between the south direction and the direction where the
panels are facing. Y axis show sun height that means how high sun in the sky in
relation to horizon. In summer the sun height is highest at 88º which occurs at
the June solstice on the 22nd June and lowest height of the sun is
37º on 22nd December.
2.2 Collection of irradiation data
Solar irradiation is the amount of radiation which
is received from the sun at the top of the globe’s atmosphere o. This
irradiation data varies with the season and weather condition of a day in year.
The monthly data of solar irradiation was collected from PVsyst software. Table
a, shows the monthly metrological data which was collected for the plant.
2.3 Design of
the proposed system
This section covers the significant aspects of the
design and simulation of the PV system. The different components of the solar
PV plant are shown in Figure b. In proposed plant model, Solar PV panel is an
electrical device which absorbs sun light and converts it into electricity. The
produced energy is direct current (DC) and the energy pass through the
inverter. The inverter converts the energy from DC to AC. Then the energy will
be supplied to the user. If the supplied energy is exceeded than the user need,
the exceeded energy goes to the grid. In bad weather, the grid supplies it to
2.3.1 Layout of plant:
Total roof area of the building is 1200m2. The selected panel for
the plant is 320 W, needed module area is 492 m2. The distance
between each panel is 0.5. So, the ground coverage ratio (GRC) is 0.5. The map
of area shown in figure c.
Land area calculation:
Land area = Module area
= 492 / 0.5
= 984 m2
2.3.2 Tilt angle: The
tilt angle for the proposed PV plant is 30º because the produced energy is
highest at 30º tilt angle. Fig 5 shows, at 0º tilt angle the produced energy is
114 MWh per year and the produced energy is increased with the increase of tilt
angle. When tilt angle is 30º, the produced energy is highest which is 128 MWh/
year. After 30º tilt angle, the produced energy is decreased with the increase
of tilt angle.
2.3.3 Solar PV module:
There are different types of solar module available in the market. For the
large-scale plant, polycrystalline modules are commonly used. For the proposed
model, we used polycrystalline based REC 320PE 72 modules for simulation. The
array global power is 96 kWp at STC and 96.1 kWp at operating condition (25ºC).
Array operating characteristics (50ºC) are Umpp 378 V and Impp 254 A.
Degradation rate of the REC panel is taken to 0.7%/year p. The parameters of proposed module are given
in the table b.
2.3.4 Inverter: An
inverter is a device which converts DC power to AC power. It is very important
to meet the inverter specification with the PV specification which runs the
system properly. Two number of inverter are used to the proposed plant which
rating is 33 kW. The manufacturer corporation is AEG Power Solutions GmbH,
having a model – Protect-PV 33. The inverter has operating voltage 300-800 V and
the unit nominal power is 33.0 kW. There are 2 units of inverter to be installed
and the power capacity is 66 kW. The parameters of proposed inverter are given
in the table c.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Plant configuration:
For appropriate sizing
of grid connected system, the proposed model was designed by PVsyst software
simulation. The panels were connected in series with 14 modules and 18 strings
in parallel. Therefore, total numbers of modules were 322. The required total
module areas were 492 m2 for panel. Total cell area was 442 m2,
this is the area where the solar radiation absorbed. At the maximum power
current of the system will be about 152 A. The total capacity of two inverter
had 66 kW which was used for the proposed model.
The output of the PV
system depends upon the received solar radiation and temperature q. Figure d
shows the array voltage-current diagram of the photovoltaic module. The maximum
power point voltage will be 460 V at the 60ºC temperature whereas the maximum
power point voltage will be 570 V at the 20ºC temperature.
3.2 Need demand
From the analyses, it
found that user need average 343 KWh per day. Table d shows daily average
demand of energy is 670325 MW in the March, April, May, Jun, July, August,
September, October of a year. In November, December, January and February, the
demand of energy is comparatively lower than the other month of a year which is
93596 MW. Figure e illustrates the daily peak hour 9 to 11 AM where the maximum
So, annual demand of
the user is 125 MWh per year. From table c, it observed that the maximum energy
supply to the user is in the month of March, which is 8.633 MWh. The minimum
supply to the user is in the month of February, which is 1.828 MWh whereas the
maximum energy injected to the grid in the month of November, which is 11.01
produced energy: 127.9 MWh/year
production :1586 kWh/year
ratio (PR) :80.0%
Fraction (SF): 48.3%
As we can see in figure
f, normalized energy, i.e. kWh/kWp/day is shown per month. The collection
losses of PV array are 0.79 kWh per day and system losses per day is 0.29
kWh/kWp. The average of actual produced energy per day is 4.34 kWh/kWp. The
average value of the produced energy per month is found to be minimum in the
month of July, which goes as low as 3.5 kWh/kWp, this is because of natural
disaster such as rain, cloud weather but this month losses are minimum. The
maximum produced energy in the month is March and November which goes up to 4.5
In the system, the
average performance ratio is 0.801, i.e. 80.1% which shown in the figure g. The
variation in performance ratio is very negligible, but lower performance is
observed in the month of May which is less than 65% .
3.3 Loss diagram over
the whole year
It is impossible
to covert 100% energy received from the solar radiation because of various losses.
Figure h represents detailed losses occurred in the proposed model. It observed
that the net electricity production is around 127.9 MWh/year and the system
does not supply completely to load or to grid. This is because, the software
assumes that total load is distributed for every hour of the day for a complete
month and solar energy is not available for 24 h a day r. Around 67.3 MWh is
supplied to the grid and around 60.5 MWh to the user, while it takes 64.8 MWh
from the grid.
3.4 Economic analysis
3.4.1 Cost calculation: For proposed model of the
plant, cost calculation is very important. For the plant, we have calculated
the approximate cost in Bangladesh. Table e shows approximate cost of PV
cost: 252 units modules with 320 W/module and 50 TK per Watt cost.
cost: 2 units inverter with 33 KW and 35 TK per Watt cost.
= (2*33*1000*35) TK
= 2310000 TK
cost: (Inverter + Module) * 10%
= (4032000 + 2310000) * 10%
= 6342100 TK
Maintenance cost: Table
f shows that first 5 years the maintenance cost is very low because first 5-year
maintenance cost is needed for cleaning the panel. After 5-year maintenance cost
is increased which shows in figure i.
energy cost per unit * system production
= 7.57 TK * (127.9 * 1000) KWh
= 968203 TK
Net yearly saving =
yearly saving – yearly maintenance cost
– 68494) TK
Payback period=net in
investment (including tax) / yearly saving
= 8387295 / 899709
= 9.3 Year
Profit = 25 -9.3 Year =
From the analyses, we
found that the plant produced energy is 127.9 MWh/year, out of which 67.3 MWh/year
will be sold to the grid. The total yearly cost will be coming out to be around
with net investment including taxes (15%) will around 8387295
After sold energy, the cost of produced energy will be coming out to be 3.16
TK/kWh. Cost analyses using PVsyst software shown in figure j.
3.5 CO2 reduction
carbon emissions, the adoption of renewable energy technology can help reduce
global warming s-t. Solar PV GHG emissions are due
to the energy spent during the manufacturing of the panels us. CO2 reduction using PVsyst software
shown in figure k.
Calculation of carbon balance is as follows:
Carbon balance = (Egrid * life of plant * LCEgrid)
= (127.9 MWh*25* 584 gCO2/kWh)-176.1 tCO2
Now a day, electricity
generation has become a major challenge for a country. This design of the plant
is performed with the help of the PVsyst software. By the help of the PVsystem
software, output of the needed electricity, financial analyses and system
losses are configured. The whole study is focused to design and financial
analysis of grid tied photovoltaic system for small area. In the proposed
system, 252 units module and 2 units inverter are produced 127.9 MW electricity
which satisfy our need demand. Performance ratio of the system is 80.1%. In
financial analyses, we found that institute can not only satisfy the need
demand but also earn profit to sell excess electricity. This plant will be able
to reduce 1541.9 tones CO2 in its lifetime of 25years. This proposed
plant is ideal to institute as well as contribute of Bangladesh Government
target of generate 2000 MW of renewable energy
electricity by 2021.
a: Metrological data for HSTU admin building.
Table b: Solar PV module specification.
REC 320PE 72
Table c: Solar Inverter module specification.
Power Solutions GmbH
Minimum MPPT Voltage
Minimum Voltage for PNom
Maximum MPPT Voltage
Absolute max. PV Voltage
Table d: Monthly user needed energy and total annual
December, January, February
Use 5 days a week
2500 W tot
April, May, Jun, July, August, September, October
Use 5 days a week
2500 W tot
3600 W tot
23 W tot
Table e: Approximate cost of PV component.
of module and inverter cost
of module and inverter cost
Table f: Yearly maintenance cost.
a: Sun path for HSTU administrative building.
Figure b: Block
diagram of the plant system.
c: Satellite view of HSTU administrative building.
d: Voltage- Current diagram.
e: Daily power consumption.
f: Normalized energy production.
g: Performance ratio of the system.
h: Loss diagram of the system.
i: Maintenance cost over 25 years.
j: Cost analysis
k: CO2 reduction
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