Formulation in absorption or they are inactivated in the

Formulation of
parenterals

Parenteral
products

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Parenteral is derived from the Greek word ( para enteron, beside
the intestine), it means the dosage form that is injected directly in to the
blood encompassing the body first line defensive systems of the human body, the
skin, and mucous membranes. The main property of the parentral product is that
they must be exceptionally pure and free from physical, chemical, and
biological contaminants. These necessities the pharmaceutical industry to
practice current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) in the manufacture of
parenteral dosage forms and on pharmacists and other health care professionals
to practice good aseptic practices (GAPs) in dispensing parenteral dosage forms
for administration to patients.

There are
certain pharmaceutical agents which cannot be administered orally such as peptides,
proteins, and many chemotherapeutic agents because either due to their molecular
size they cannot be administered orally or they have problem in absorption or they
are inactivated in the gastrointestinal tract when given orally, so they only
way to administer them efficiently is the parentral. The other important
property of the  parenterally-administered
drugs is that they are relatively unstable and generally highly potent drugs
that require strict control of administration to the patient. Nowadays due to
the advent and advancement of biotechnology, parenteral products have grown in
number and usage around the world because most of the new drugs which are
coming to the market are mostly protein and peptides in nature. 1

The most common routes of giving parenteral medications are
intravenous (IV), subcutaneous and intramuscular, but there are a variety of
other routes of parentral administrations which are less used as compared to
the three discussed above, such as intra-arterial. In addition, products such
as subcutaneous implants are usually classed as parenterals.

There
are, arguably, a greater variety of formulations administered by the parenteral
route than by any other. These include emulsions, suspensions, liposomes,
particulate systems and solid implants as well as the ubiquitous simple
solution. The main difference between the parentarl products and other dosage
form is the is the absolute requirement for sterility, regardless of the
formulation type means that the parentral products must be free from the microbial
contaminations as they are directly injected into the blood, tissue etc.