Fredrick Herzberg explained
motivation and job satisfaction in a very different way. This theory recognizes by asking individuals what
satisfies and dissatisfies them in the work environment. Herzberg defined two sets of factors in deciding
employees working attitudes and level of performance, named Motivation &
Hygiene Factors (Robbins, 2009).
factors are the internal factors that increases employee job satisfaction and
encourages them to work harder; while Hygiene Factors are external factors that contributes to job
dis-satisfaction. These two factors can have an effect on job satisfaction.
Motivators are intrinsic to the job, such as
recognition, achievement, extra responsibility, and internal promotion. These
factors create and maintain positive effects on employee performance, keeps
them interested into their job and truly encourages them to try even harder.
Hygiene Factors are extrinsic to the job causing dis-satisfaction such as
salary, work conditions, safety, unfair company policies, relationship with
managers and peers, status. These have been shown in Table 1. Extrinsic factors
only enables’ employees desire to work whereas as Intrinsic factors decide
quality of work. Dis-satisfaction could be stopped by making improvements in
hygiene factors but would not provide motivation on its own. For example,
Office and is too cold in the winter. Even if issue like this are resolved
(central heating is turned on). In this scenario, even if dis-satisfaction is
banished, it may not lead to increased motivation or job satisfaction. Most
likely, the situation will be taken for granted. This shows job satisfaction
leads to performance.
The key responsibility of management is to
encourage and motivate their employees. And failure to do so results in high
rates of employees quit their jobs. The companies need understand that people are
most important resources of an organization. There is a saying that “employees
don’t leave companies, they leave managers”. This can be due to lack of growth
opportunities, no empathy, and no motivation. It is extremely important for the
managers to take the time to listen to employee concerns and suggestions so
they feel that they are important and organization cares enough to listen.
personal experience working at Zara along with interviewing two of the current
employees, Zara faces both Intrinsic-internal promotion and employee retention
and Extrinsic-working relationship with the managers as their biggest
challenges to motivate its employees. The HR department needs to focus on the
three subsections as below, which should be worked, measured and combined
with the company strategy and long-term plan together: