Government Policy: Climate Change Adaptation. This policy is about

Government Policies and Public ServicesAlmost all Government policies are related to the public services and armed services. Every day there are policies passed through the House of Commons and House of Lords that affect many different aspects within the services, such as their responsibilities, the employees, finance and the use of technology.Types of policies that are related to all of the public services may be:EnvironmentalEquality and diversityHuman rightsFinanceEach of these categories will directly affect every public service as each of them are involved with all services. These policies will restrict and allow them to make changes to their way of work which will benefit the nation in the way that the government thinks is best. Each of these categories are becoming more and more important with how the world is changing.The environmental policies cover everything that the public services do that will affect the environment, such as methods of transport, carbon footprints and the use of fossil and renewable fuels. A policy that could be used for an example of this is the 2010 – 2015 Government Policy: Climate Change Adaptation. This policy is about how the government, businesses and societies do to help reduce the risk of climate change. There is a report every five years on this to check that they are taking the correct and appropriate actions. This will affect each of the public services as they are each part of the government, so they will receive a report and have to take actions to help with climate change. This could possibly mean that all of the services must each change certain aspects, such as more efficient transport (electric, upgrading after certain number of miles/year’s), carbon footprints (recycling, use of renewable energy) and the use of the environment for weapons testing in the military (Otterburn).The equality and diversity policies cover all of the this and inclusiveness involved within each service. This section can also link in with the human rights section. The things that this covers is: Age, gender and orientation, disability, sexual orientation, race, religion/beliefs, pregnancy and marriage. An example of a policy that is about this is the 2010 – 2015 Government Policy: Community Integration. This policy is about how  local communities, government communities and business communities are inclusive for each of the stereotypes and how they can adapt to make it fair for everyone. This policy will affect each of the services as in each one, there will be different races, genders, ages, religions, sexual orientations and disabilities. Different services can accept certain differences, for example, the armed services cannot employ a person with severe asthma, but a school could. The policy affects the armed services the most out of all of the public services due to the physicality. The only three things that limit selection and roles in the military are disability, gender and age. However, most other public services should include everyone from these categories and adapt to allow them to work in the same environment as everyone else. Some examples of things that they might need to change is food, facilities and the employees (teachers in an all girls or boys school).The finance policies cover everything that the public services do concerning money, as each of them are funded and ran by the government. An example of a policy for this could be the 2010 – 2015 Government Policy: Government Spending. This policy concerns how the government spend every penny of the £700 budget, with a priority on public services. In 2016, the Uk government received about £310 billion, which is roughly 41% of the budget. This clearly shows that the government is prioritising trying to improve the public services. Each public service receives a different amount of the budget, so some get less than others. Recently, the Ministry of Defence has had large cutbacks and the budget has dramatically decreased (about 5%). This has resulted in things such as a lack of personnel and facilities/equipment, like ships for the Navy. Therefore, the power and infrastructure of the military is not as strong as it was, as the government do not think that it is needed as much now as it was before. The majority of the money is now spent on social protection, health and education. Defence and public order sand safety now receive the smallest amount of the budget, getting 5.4% and 4.4% respectively.This could be good however for the government as a whole. It means that the money they do not use for the public services can be used for other things, which they deem to be more important at this time. But, the less money that is spent on the emergency and armed services, the less efficient and effective they will be. A lack of funding in the military has resulted in a large drop of numbers in each section, so the ability for them to defend the country in a time of need has decreased. The emergency services also get a small amount of the budget to help with public and safety. This means that the Police Force receive less money to help with crime prevention. The local communities and societies will therefore be affected by this, as it may result in an increase in crimes in the area such as vandalism, burglaries and anti-social behaviour. The Ambulance service receive less money to help get to and help injured people in the area. This may result in more severe outcomes to incidents, possibly even an increase in deaths. The same goes with the Fire Service.There are also policies that concern only one branch of the public services. This is because each if them have a different role, so some policies need to be more specialised. An example of this is the armed services, and some of the policies are about:Military Operations Use of reserve forces Use of technologyIt is extremely important for these policies to be in place, as each if these categories have nothing to do with any of the other public services. The military operation policies involve everything to do with the military’s actions, from the unloading of a plane to the order to fire a nuclear weapon. These are extremely important policies as they cover everything that the armed forces do. An example of a policy concerning this is the 2010 – 2015 Government Policy: Nuclear Disarmament. This policy about the scrapping of nuclear weapons, hopefully all around the world to reduce the risk of nuclear war. Even Though the government believe that nuclear deterrent is a large part of their security, they believe that a world without nuclear weapons is possible. This policy has clear positives and negatives. It is good, as if it is successful, then the world should hopefully become a much safer place for all societies, cultures and communities. However, if the policy is not successful worldwide, then the effects could be devastating, with the worst case being a nuclear war, with whole cities, communities, societies and areas being wiped out.There are also policies concerning the increasing use of reserve forces and of technology. An example of this is the use of drones for detecting and following targets, which many people see to be a disturbance of privacy. The emergency services also have their own specialised policies. Again, this is because they do things that none of the other services do. Some examples of policies in the emergency services are: Target settingFinanceThe emergency services use target setting and feedback to try and improve the standard of their services. Some examples of things that they may look to improve are: Reaction time, time to steady situation and public satisfaction. This is very important to them, as it helps them do see what they are doing well and what they are not doing so well and make differ to improve it. This will only work if they set realistic goals that can be achieved and are not too difficult to achieve. Local services can also set their own targets, as every area is different; an urban area will have more crime than a rural area. The police officers therefore need to be trained to know how to deal with the crimes that are the most common in the area. This is all possible because of the technology available to log all of the data, such as the crimes recorded.Another policy in the emergency services concerns finance. Funds for the emergency services are decreasing, with the percentage government budget dropping from 8.4% to 4.4% in 2016. This means that the government believes they are needing less funding to be able to keep carrying out their job. A decrease in money available means that they emergency services must make more use of what they have got, but this may result in a lack of standards, and the inability to reach to goals set for them by the government. However, the money that is saved from this section can be used somewhere where the government sees it fit to be more useful.The first policy that I looked at affecting the public services is the: 2015 – 2020 GovernmentPolicy: Military aid to the Civil Authorities for Activities in the UK.This policy is all about how the Armed Services help the Uk and other nations around the world in times of crisis and involves not just the actions taken, but all of the planning that is involved too. In a time of emergency, the emergency services (Police, Ambulance and Fire service) will be the first to react and help, followed by the armed services if needed. The military’s role is coordinated from the Ministry of Defence, which is not the same place as for the emergency services. It is not a statutory responsibility for the MOD to plan for and help during a crisis. This is because the armed services are needed for their specialised roles, which the emergency services cannot perform and because some of the MOD budget will be spent which could be used for other responsibilities. This means that the armed forces will only be supplied if they are in need.An example of the armed forces being deployed to help in time of a crisis could be the British Army helping in Cumbria during the floods in 2015. They helped to evacuate flooded towns and put in place flood defences to prevent it from getting worse and happening again. This benefited the public in the region as it helped them to move to a safer place and rescue as much as possible from what is left of the area. If this policy had not been in place allowing the armed services to help during crisis, then many people would have been stuck in their homes and had much of their surrounding area and property destroyed as the emergency services do not have the same amount of people available to help. However the down side, the MOD must spend a proportion of their budget to be able to help, and as this is not their statutory responsibility, the budget can be used for things that are more important to help them to fulfill their role. Also, in extreme circumstances, as many of the personnel are needed for another duty, such as war.During a circumstance like this, the British Army will have worked with each of the local emergency services, third parties/charities and also local volunteers. Some examples of these will be the Red Cross, who are a charity and give help in need and crisis’, and the Fire Service, who will also help to evacuate people out of their homes and put up flood defences.Another example of the military providing assistance during a crisis is in Somalia, where UN forces from around the world are deployed there to help fight against extreme Islam groups. The forces from around the world are working as part of the United Nations to help keep the residents in Somalia safe and to try and get rid of any extremist groups from the area to make it safer for the locals. Operations like this are taking place all over the world to try and make the places safer for the locals to live.The second policy that I researched is the: Report by the Home Secretary on Fire and Rescue Authorities’ Progress with the Fire and Rescue National Framework for England.This policy is a report on how the Fire service are comparing to the framework that is set for them. This helps to check that they are meeting certain requirements, such as the time it takes from receiving the call, and arriving at the fire. If they are consistently under these standards, then there will be measures out forwards to try and improve. The public are also notified through policies about how their local services and the whole of government are performing as it is their right to know. If this policy was not in place, then the Fire and Rescue service would not know what they are doing that can be improved. Ultimately, this could lead to deaths if the standards are too low. Some changes that they may be able to make are:Increase reaction time (practice by doing lots of drills)Decrease time taken to clear the threat (practice each possible situation)This policy is good for the public and for the Fire Service, as it lets them both know how they are performing. The public can therefore see if they are performing to the standards that they are happy with. If it is not to the standards, then it is the public’s right to protest and complain.Also, this lets the service see how they can improve and make changes to improve the standards.However, this could also be negative for the fire service, as it could give them lots of negative criticism from the media and from the public, which may lower the workers confidence and want to do the job.Policies are not always positively received by not just the public, but also businesses and workers. There are often strikes, protests or marches to demonstrate against a policy that they do not like. These protests are on always peaceful, and can end up with violence and injuries. There are ruler strikes within teaching unions, due to unhappiness with pay and conditions. Unfortunately, there is still a lot of terrorism prese due to a difference in beliefs. This can cause major problems and danger, which has been seen many times. In May 2017, there was the Manchester bombings, where 23 people were killed and over 500 people injured. Later in 2017 there was the London attacks, where a police officer and multiple other people were killed. This shows dangerous it can be when policies and beliefs are not accepted.Overall, policies are a good thing to have in place to stop certain sections of public services from gaining too much power. They generally help to keep communities and societies safer than what they would without them. Without policies, public services would able to do what they please and without restriction or guidelines, which could be dangerous for whole nations. References: