History common even today. He recognized the need to

History Journal Entry One:Akbar the Great was the third emperor of the Mughal Empire from 1556-1605 (New World Encyclopedia,2016). In terms of military conquest he is considered the is considered the greatest of the Mughal Empire (Stoner Productions, 1999). During his reign he tripled the size of the empire and was the first Muslim ruler to earn the trust and loyalty of the empire’s Hindu subjects (New World Encyclopedia, 2016). The loyalty of non-Muslim subjects was not something seen in subsequent rulers. He was a religiously tolerant leader who removed the tax on non-Muslims and encouraged theological discussion. He went so far as to create a new religion that was a blend of Islam and Hinduism, this religion was not popular, however, and died with him (Stoner Productions, 1999). He was an enlightened and unique leader who showed a level of religious tolerance that isn’t common even today. He recognized the need to unite those he ruled and made a remarkable difference during his time as emperor despite being illiterate.References: The New World Encyclopedia (2016, Nov 4). Akbar the Great. Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Akbar_the_GreatStoner Productions (1999). Taj Mahal. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/treasuresoftheworld/taj_mahal/tlevel_2/t1mughal_2akbar.htmlEntry Two: In the 15th century large numbers of Africans came into European society, before this time they were rarely seen by the general masses and they had very little contact with each other. When they did the beginnings of white racism began to stir. Most Europeans thought of them in terms of the Bible, where black is the color of sin and corruption, and the Muslim prejudice that had unconsciously become their own over time. The Arab slave traders that supplied European and Asiatic markets were another source of prejudice as they were contemptuous towards the non-Muslim Africans who they had been selling for centuries. Their point of view was easily adopted by their European partners and by the time the European slave trade took off in the 17th century white racism had become the cornerstone of the slave based economy in most of the Western hemisphere and that prejudice has never fully disappeared (Adler & Pouwels, page 308). The idea that these people were less than those who bought and sold them led to the idea that they were less than human. Even once the European slave trade ended and slavery has been made illegal and people given equal rights the mentality among some that people of color are naturally less than those of European descent is still seen.Reference:Adler, P.J. & Pouwels, R.L. (2018). World civilizations: Volume II since 1500 (8th, ed.) Boston: Cengage Learning.Entry Three: Despite the fact that women rulers were not the norm in Africa, Queen Nzinga Mpande was a very notable exception. She was almost guaranteed a place of importance among the Ngola people as the favored daughter of Ngola King Kilaunji. She was a skilled negotiator and when the Portuguese didn’t honor their peace treaty she allied herself with other countries and in 1648 her armies desolated the Portuguese army. To gain the throne she poisoned her brother, the king, in 1623 and assumed the throne. She was a remarkable leader and a powerful woman for a time when women did not often rule. (Adler & Pouwels,page 348). Reference:Adler, P.J. & Pouwels, R.L. (2018). World civilizations: Volume II since 1500 (8th, ed.) Boston: Cengage Learning.Entry Four: Henry VIII had many wives in his search for a male heir and political allies. In the end it was his daughters who ruled England, each having a very different way of ruling. From his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon came a daughter named Mary. During her brief reign she restored Catholicism in England and had many Protestants put to death. For this she was called “Bloody Mary” by the English Protestants. From Henry VIII second marriage, to Anne Boleyn, came another daughter Elizabeth who was the successor of Mary. In the chaos that was the official religion of England Queen Elizabeth I cleared the confusion by creating a compromise between the Roman and Protestant doctrines that came to be called the Church of England. Elizabeth was a brilliant politician who managed to survive a time when being siding with wither the Catholics or the Protestants would be dangerous and managed to stay alive and take the throne for herself. In a time when she was expected to marry and produce an heir she never married and ruled for almost 50 years (Adler & Pouwels,page 313).Reference:Adler, P.J. & Pouwels, R.L. (2018). World civilizations: Volume II since 1500 (8th, ed.) Boston: Cengage Learning.Entry Five: Best known for her attempts of returning England to Catholicism, Queen Mary I had a short reign of only five years. Her reign was largely unsuccessful as she did not achieve any of her goals. Her reign was a time of strife and bloodshed as she worked to systematically return England to Catholicism and had hundreds of people burned at the stake for heresy. In hopes of securing an heir quickly she married prince Philip II of Spain, though she never became pregnant. Her foreign affairs were met with the same lack of success as her attempts to return the country to Catholicism. She allied with Spain in the war against France and lost the only English possession in France, Calais. When her husband returned to Spain to claim the throne she was left without an heir and forced to acknowledge her half-sister Elizabeth as the next ruler of England. Mary’s rule was met with much resistance by Protestants and her rule accomplished very little (Lindbuchler,2005). In her short reign she did not accomplish any of her goals but did bring about a time of confusion and conflict over the official religion in England.ReferenceLindbuchler, R. (2005, June 5). Queen “Bloody” Mary I Tudor of England. Retrieved from http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/marytudor.htmlEntry Six: Queen Elizabeth I ruled for about half a century and was an outstanding politician who played everyone in her court. After the disaster that was the rule of her half-sister there was much doubt among the masses as to whether or not there should be a woman ruling their country. She made it clear from the beginning that she intended to rule in more than name only. Despite numerous courtships, Queen Elizabeth I was married to her country only and became known as the Virgin Queen (Morrill, Greenblatt, 2017). She was a woman who shared her power with no one and even her most trusted ministers did not have the power to make final decisions about matters of the state. For her to have married would have lessened the power that she alone held and being such an independent woman that very well could have been one of the main factors in her decision to never marry. She was a woman who knew how to show no more than what she wanted to show and often had even her trusted advisors convinced of things she had no intention of actually doing, such as going through with marriages (Morrill, Greenblatt, 2017). She was truly a woman ahead of her time and an icon that became the image of an age that marked great changes in England.Reference:Morrill, J., Greenblatt, S. (2017, Aug. 31). Elizabeth I. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Elizabeth-IEntry Seven: The Aztec empire fell not just because of the superior weapons that the Spanish had but for a multiple reason. Not only did the Spanish had superior weapons the likes of which they had never seen and had very little chance of defending themselves against but the Spanish had also allied themselves with other tribes from the area that were eager to see the Aztecs defeated and the kidnapping and sacrificing of their peoples stopped. The Aztecs were lacking their leader Montezuma, who had been taken captive, and also being exposed to diseases they had never encountered before. These diseases, such as smallpox wiped out large portions of the Aztec people making them far easier to conquer (Cartwright, 2016). Between all these factors there was almost no chance that the Aztecs could have defeated the Spanish and their allies to keep their empire. There were doomed from the very moment the Spanish set foot on the mainland and there was nothing they could do about it.Reference:Cartwright, M. (2016, July 04). Cortes & the Fall of the Aztec Empire. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/916/Entry Eight: The external influences that led to the fall of the Inca empire are very similar to those of the Aztec empire. The Spanish had superior weapons, brought diseases that weaken the people, and allied themselves with those who wanted the Inca empire to fall. The Inca empire had internal problems to deal with around this time as well which made them easier to conquer. The states which they had conquered were only loosely integrated into the empire which led to constant conflict in some parts of the empire and others were only cooperating due to the empire’s military dominance. At the death of the ruler Wayna Qhapaq in 1528, his two sons fought for control of the kingdom resulting in a civil way that lasted 6 years and resulted in Atahualpa ruling though there was still fighting as there were factions who had not yet come to terms with the victory. Due to this when Francisco Pizarro arrived the Inca were fighting amongst themselves (Cartwright, 2016). With so many factors putting things in the favor of the Spanish conquistadors there was very little hope for the Inca empire and they were defeated. Reference:Cartwright, M. (2016, July 01). Pizarro & the Fall of the Inca Empire. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/915/ Entry Nine: The treatment of religious minorities has varied over time in different countries and empires. In the early centuries of the Ottoman empire non-Muslims were generally treated quite fairly. They were limited in civil rights and did not by any means have the rights of the Muslim citizens. Despite their restrictions they were allowed to run their own affairs and and follow their own traditions and were not forced to convert to Islam. This changed in the seventeenth century as the conditions of the Balkan Christians deteriorated and by the eighteenth century the conditions were so oppressive the the Balkan Christians began looking for liberation from neighboring independent countries. The conditions never got better and the treatment of the Christians in the Islamic Near East is still colored by the old hatred that comes from the time of Ottoman rule in the Balkan states. This is still the primary source of the religious conflicts in the region and it really shows how old prejudices and traditions don’t die with the generations that start them but continue to plague the generations that come after. (Adler & Pouwels, pages 331-332).Reference:Adler, P.J. & Pouwels, R.L. (2018). World civilizations: Volume II since 1500 (8th, ed.) Boston: Cengage Learning.Entry Ten: The Reformation was a movement that forever changed the way Christianity was seen and practiced throughout Europe and its impacts can be seen even today over 500 years later. The Reformation began as a result of the corruption and abuses of the Catholic Church. It all began with one German monk named Martin Luther and his 95 Theses. One of the major complaints against the church was the indulgence which people could buy. An indulgence was a pardon of sins that could be bought to get a person out of Purgatory and into Heaven once they died. Essentially, a person could buy their way into heaven and this is something that Martin Luther was against. This is a movement that brought about the different branches of Protestantism that are commonly practiced today (Wisse, 2002). Reference:Wisse, Jacob. “The Reformation.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/refo/hd_refo.htm (October 2002)