Introduction derived from the Latin word ‘saeculum andsaecularis’ which

Introduction France is considered one of the European countries that had suffered the worst assaults by jihadists in the recent years among all European countries. Terrorists are considering France as the major target in Europe for many reasons. ISIS seemed to find a fertile ground for recruitment in France due to the fundamental secularism  beside the economic deprivation, the violent history of French colonialization in north Africa which enhancing the Muslim’s sense of alienation from the French society based on their previous experience of discrimination practiced by colonies. According to the Soufan Group in 2015, 1800 French person had left France and joined ISIS and some militant groups in Syria and Iraq which consider a large number compared to the number of fighters that has come from different countries. Terrorist attacks are fuelled as well by Economic deprivation and high unemployment rate for Muslims. Prisons in France have considered a recruiting ground for extremists in France, at the same time we are seeing the French radical right is growing and gaining popularity by calling for banning Muslims and raising the slogan of Anti-immigrant and that is what ISIS is using to capture the attention of young French Muslims. As ISIS is using this sense of marginalization to propagate and offer sense of belonging, purpose and respect. This paper searched the reasons behind targeting France by jihadists’ worst terrorist attacks in Europe. Secularism Secularism in a France had caused a series of debates whether it is promoting freedom of religion and freedom of thoughts or promoting anti-clericalism and prevent believer from practicing their individual right to religious expression instead. Secularism is gaining popularity in contemporary days but at the same time it is gaining a strong opposition as well because of the misinterpretation or misusing it. Secularism is derived from the Latin word ‘saeculum andsaecularis’ which aims to separate the state from religion policies to eliminate the threat of religious fundamentalism including religious violence and separatist movements. A question popes up here what about religious identity and culture, freedom of expression, to what limit could secularism impose a tolerant laws that doesn’t threat other rights. The answer lies in the analysis of the form of secularism and nature of these laws that includes secular values and its implications on the society. Secularism has two forms; fundamentalist secularism and liberal secularism. Both are considering religions as a private matter but the difference between them is their definition to private and public sphere. Liberal secularism doesn’t prohibit manifestation of religious beliefs within public sphere including public institutions like universities and schools but for Fundamental secularism prohibit all religious manifestations considering it as a private issues must be confined to the  private areas such as homes not expressed in public sphere or public institutions considering religions as threat to liberty so it preferred itself to threat liberty and freedom of religious expression instead. French secularism is unfortunately the second type ‘ fundamental secularism’.Developing of secularism in FranceSecularism was rooted in the French revolution , as the people wanted to assure the separation between state and the church so they built their constitution on it as French is a secular state starting with imposing law of 1905 that  separate the two for preserving freedom and liberty of France from the despotism of the church. In contemporary days it had expanded to include all religions especially Islam. This days, secularism is not only aiming to prevent interference of religious organizations in political issues as they go far in applying secularism. In 2003, a French law has been imposed to prohibit religious symbols to be worn in public sphere like schools and universities which contradict with Article 9 of European convention on human rights and fundamental freedoms that underpin the liberal right of wearing religious symbols, religious expression and democratic pluralist values. Secularism is turning from positive one to negative extreme one which contradict with the universal fundamental rights that was declared by the UN which has enhanced sense of alienation and marginalization “Many debates had been done on the principal of freedom to wear the veil as a symbol of religion, all opinions swings between seeing it as an oppressive symbol to woman or a physical barrier, political opposition, political resistance to colonization or as a symbol of chastity and modesty”. Hijab could be interpreted as many different things but the most important to mention here that lots of French young Muslim women wore it as an empowering symbol of their identity as Muslims. So this clash after imposing 2003 law, has took place between the old tradition of secularism and the new French reality which had devolved a sense of hate between the French young Muslims as if secularism is aiming to push them away. Despite the fact that young Muslims students are not wearing headscarf but they exposed to discrimination like the type of food and holidays. All food which allows in schools is pork not halal as  it is not permitted there and holidays is determined based on the Roman Catholic Church. According to Mohammed Henniche The Head of union of Muslim associations of seine-St.-Denis called this application of secularism is unfair and aggressive claiming that Muslims can live happily under moderate secularism but with these policies such as banning Halal meat and rarely allow building minarets, Muslims are suffering from sense of annihilation and scared from the next step that could be done against them and toward their identity. ‘Not enough Mosques’ this is a real crisis for French there as government doesn’t subsidize them and at the same time they keep blocking the new mosques and calling for a temporary ban on foreign funding of French mosques. Liberal secularism is okay to be studied in schools but at the same time, they should be taught that Islam is great like other religions so as students would feel proud toward their origin as mocking religions produces hate toward society. Extremism is feeding on hate and sense of alienation, and after little years that hate is growing to antagonism and a desire for revenge from that society. In one of the attacks in France, the terrorist was called Larussia Abballa, he was 25, he told Le Monde that a group of jihadists had offered him a sense of purpose in an in directionless life that included bouts of unemployment ” I needed a recognition” he said. The rate of Islamophobia had raised aggressively in 2012, as new statistics state that the attacks  against Muslims in 2011 was more 34% than the previous year then in 2012 between January and end of October according to France24 reports, there were 175 reported Islamophobia acts which mean 42% more than 2011. This Islamophobia will send a message of fear and hate to Muslims, which will motivate the sense of alienation and hate inside Muslims and that guarantee a continual line of violence from all sides.Hate crimes against Muslims in France have tripled since the terrorist attacks against Charlie Hebdo magazine and a kosher supermarket so France considered all Muslims are Terrorists and began to take Countermeasures against them especially after the attackers said during their attack avenged the Prophet Muhammad&, and Akbar&. So France turned to secularism in an effort to curb the rise in extremism because it sees secular policies decrease the rise of the phenomenon of the terrorism and control on the extremist sentiments although some European people see that Secularist ideology has been unable to contain extremism in all circumstances and according to secular principle, the law of 15 March 2004 prohibits all clothing that expresses on the displaying religious worship to be worn in schools. The issue of religious behavior in the work environment may be greatly delicate in France. The study that carried out by Marie-Anne Val fort found that men who are Muslims had a 4.7 % chance of being asked for a job interview, compared to 17.9 % Catholics men between 2013 and 2014 and the study concluded that there is a discrimination against Muslims and Jews in France.                                                                                                                                    Claire Adida is an Associate Professor of Political Science from the University of California, San Diego and she made an experiment to know how the French job market is rife with discrimination against Muslims so she invented a fake person called Khadija and she found that the Muslim candidate is around 2.5 times less likely to get a job interview than a Christian one and also there is no equality between people because Muslim households earn far less than Christian equivalents. Also In France, the Senate voted unanimously to ban women from wearing Islamic face-veils in public.    This graph breaks down callback rates by both religion and gender.In general, “men are less likely than women to get a job especially if they also are Muslims, Only 5 percent of Muslim men received any contact from employers. Whereas the call-back rate for practicing female Catholic applicants is “only” 40% higher than that for practicing Muslim women, the call-back rate for practicing Catholic men is close to four times higher than that of practicing Muslim men”.The rising right wing in FranceThe far right and left parties in Europe including France may stand on a similar spot regarding the welfare policies.  Nevertheless, they have different views of whether immigrants should be included in these policies or not. The fact that economics can not be disconnected from the stance towards immigration is a crucial thing. Where, mainly, the rise of the immigrant’s numbers has implications on economic security.  For instance, the employment chances may decrease to certain individuals and the welfare programmes would be less effective. Also, a conflict over globalisation and the degree of saliency is present.  Where: Saliency is about the question of how open national borders should be all types of movements across borders, movements of people, movements of capital, movements of goods, and trade.Another perspective of viewing the immigration status is what is called the “erosion of the French culture”. This fear of the cultural erosion has almost leaded to xenophobia. Far right parties as the National Front of France fed on that fear. For instance, Marine Le Pen had publically stated that: she is against a multi-cultural France and those refugees should adapt to the French culture. The Syrian crisis, of course, is not a causal factor to the rise of the far right parties. Despite the fact that it triggered its popularity through raising the fear of national security and terrorist attacks. The process of securitizing terrorism had much to do with the popularity of these parties.  The impact of the refugees crises didn’t account only in the electoral scene, but it has showed more grassroots, deep local problems.  Marine Le Pen, the president of the National Front, made huge gains in the presidential race, despite not winning it.  This gives us a view of how the French public opinion is changing and formulated. As a party, the National Front is a socially conservative part of France, favouring economic protectionist policies, anti-migration policies, and has zero-tolerance approach to law and order. Marie Let Pen gained her popularity after promising to cut migration and her biggest policy proposal is to leave the European Union and work on a stronger France. Right wing militant attacks, as well as, violence had been revealing in all Europe in the recent years. Assaults has taken place against a wide range of opponents, including ethnic minorities, homosexuals and political enemies. Nevertheless, media coverage had minimum attention, and did not effectively shied light on these attacks, compared to Islamist extremist attacks. it is important to note that the national definitions and selection criteria vary significantly and that the vast majority of violent crimes committed by individuals or groups motivated by an extreme right-wing. Although all available national and international statistics in Europe and North America show increasing trends in extreme right-wing violence/terrorism, the basic phenomenon is by no means new: “both Europe and the United States have experienced significant extreme right-wing attacks and waves of violence during the past several decades”.In France in recent years veiling has been cast as a problem generally associated with Muslim immigrants and their failure or refusal to integrate into French culture and society. French secularists see it as a practice brought in from outside the state’s territorially defined borders; it is a practice that many perceive as a threat to the nation’s cultural values, especially its strong insistence on immigrant assimilation. Secularism as a political ideology can be traced back to early liberalism and its emphasis on universality, rationality and individual autonomy. Its fundamental premise rests on the separation of the so-called public and private spheres of life, especially state-based functions and institutions and those associated with church and family. At the heart of secularism is the notion that public spaces and institutions must be free of ‘particularist’ influences such as religious or ethnic allegiance. Once purged of personal sentiments these spaces can be considered neutral and egalitarian, allowing a free and unhindered interaction of rational individuals. Secular adherents are particularly concerned with the strict separation of church and state, which they believe is a precondition for the formation of a modern democratic republic and essential for the maintenance of a liberal society.The law separating the State and the Church was adopted on 9 December 1905Commission Stasi, and reflects the secularist and republican values of France: “the secular laws of France prohibit the wearing of religious symbols of any nature in schools and certain public buildings. This is taken to include the wearing of the veil, the hijab or the Sikh turban. The principle of secularism was further sealed with the 1958 French Constitution, reinforcing State neutrality and guaranteeing national unity. But one has to remember that the 1905 law was adopted in a context where the dominant religion in France was Catholicism. Today, due to immigration flows, French society is a lot more religiously diverse. The challenge is therefore to reconcile national unity with the respect of diversity.For the French government, enacting the law is linked to the issue of security – however, women wearing the full-face veil claim they are ready to comply with security processes when they are asked to show their face during identity checks (at airports, in a bank, etc.).For some, including feminists, the law is another demonstration of men’s control over women, where men take the decision on what women should wear, and impose it with a law.Social exclusion in the Banlieues:For sure this is one of the main reasons that led to France being a fertile ground for extremism and terrorism. Of course it is clearly apparent that France has an issue in regard to the social divisions that make some even feel alienated and excluded.In this section we are going to further discuss the history of exclusion, racism, riots and terrorism related to banlieues.Banlieues are simply suburbs that surround the main great cities in France in these areas the rates of unemployment are very high maybe more than twice the normal rate in France. Most of the residents of those areas are immigrants coming mostly from Africa or the Middle East. They are marginalized whether based on their ethnicity or based on their race and most of the youth there are unemployed.Another thing is that around 36% from the people living there are under the line of poverty and this is triple the normal average rate in France and also three of each four live in subsidized houses. These areas are full of drug dealers and suffer from the lack of services. There are huge differences between them and the people of the urban areas and the government could not close this gap either by its policy of integration or &assimilation& The above mentioned things and others make Banlieue a base for extremism and hatred and an area of focus for ISIS because it is a fertile soil for their thoughts.                       In 2005 October, 28 riots emerged in France in an attempt to reach an end to the discrimination, alienation and inequality in the banlieues. These riots emerged after the death of two young boys while they were hiding from the police in an electricity station Clichy-sous-Bois. These violent riots continued until the mid of November and it led the government to declare the state of emergency. In these riots around 9,000 vehicles were set on fire in addition some public and businesses buildings by angry youth. The damaged was estimated to be 200 million Euros.The groups of hopeless youth that were alienated in the suburbs without jobs because of their origins, color or race kept in throwing stones at the police and some argue that they also shoot at least one bullet during the battles between them and the police. Some of them were killed by shock in an electricity station and also the police fired a teargas grenade into one of the mosques. So you can see what kind of violence social exclusion can lead to.Nicolas Sarkozy, the interior minister of France spoke after the incident and promised of a &natural plan& to improve the situation in those areas and for those people. Regardless of this then from 2008 till 2011 the unemployment rates in the banlieues rather than reduced to compensate people the difference between it and the rates in urban areas increased even more.In 2015 and after 10 years from the riots and after the socialist François Hollande becoming France’s president that made a promise to end what is called ghettos. Even while trade unions work hardly in order to improve the status of the workers some of them from those areas. Those suburbs (banlieues) remain in crisis and in need for help and we still find a lot of terrorist attacks like the Charlie Hebdo incident and the attack made by a French gunman on the kosher supermarkets this is because the discrimination, racism and inequality still exist even Manuel Valls the French prime minister admitted this when he said that there is & territorial, social and ethnic apartheid & in France. Another point of inequality is education which is one of the great problems in the banlieues as France is regarded as one having one of the most unequal educational systems in the world with the education depending on the socioeconomic status of the students.Until now in 2017 problems still exist in the banlieues and racism and discrimination still continue. This is apparent in the incident of &Theo& the young black man who is 22 that the police assaulted him sexually.All of this alienation and social exclusion to the people of the banlieues that most of them are immigrants from the Middle East and North Africa the high unemployment rates, bad education, lack of services, poverty and what happened in the past riots from the police toward those people made them distrust in the police and the country and makes them seek a place or a community that gives them purpose and recognition so this makes it easier for terrorist groups to recruit them and plant their thoughts into their minds and this shows us how the social exclusion, discrimination and ill-treatment of the people in the banlieues makes France a fertile ground for terrorism and the recruiting of terrorist.