Introduction research project. It is link between studies already

Introduction

 

            Every
piece of ongoing research needs to be connected with the work already done to
attain an overall relevance and purpose. A literature review is designed to
identify related research, to set the current research project within a
conceptual and theoretical context. So reviewing the related literature becomes
one of the most indispensable parts of the research project. It is link between
studies already done and the proposed research project. It works as a light
house not only with regard to the quantum of work done in the field but also
enables us to perceive the gaps and lacunas in the field of research concerned.

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Katz
(1964) has conducted a study on “The
motivational basis of organizational behavior” pointed out that in order to function efficiently, an organization must have
the following three basic conditions pertaining to employees: (1) participating
and staying in the organization, (2) acting according to the behavioral
principles planned by the organization; and the most important condition, (3)
automatic devotion to the organization. Bateman and Organ (1983) followed the
third extra-role categorized by Katz (1964), and defined it as “citizenship
behavior”.

 

Ann Smith (1983) has conducted a study on “Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature & Antecedents” stated that a group of performance called citizenship
behavior is significant in organizations and not easily explained by the same
incentives that induce entry, conformity to contractual role prescriptions, or
high production. Data were collected from 422 employees and their supervisors
from 58 departments of 2 banks to inspect the nature and analysts of
citizenship behavior. Results suggest that citizenship behavior includes at least
2 dimensions: altruism, or helping specific persons, and generalized
compliance, a more impersonal form of conscientious citizenship. Job
satisfaction, as a measure of chronic mood state, showed a direct predictive
path to altruism but not generalized compliance. Rural background had direct
effects on both dimensions of citizenship behavior. The analytical power of
other variables (e.g., leader supportiveness as assessed independently by
co-workers and extraversion and neuroticism as assessed by the Maudsley
Personality Inventory) varied across the 2 dimensions of citizenship behavior.

 

 

 

John P. Meyer and Natalie
J. Allen (1991) has conducted a study on “The Measurement And Antecedents Of
Affective, Continuance And Normative Commitment” Diversity in the conceptualization
and measurement of organizational commitment has made it difficult to interpret
the results of an gathering body of research. In this study the existing
distinction between attitudinal and behavioral commitment and argue that
commitment, as a psychological state, has at least three separable components
reflecting (a) a desire (affective commitment), (b) a need (continuance commitment),
and (c) an obligation (normative commitment) to uphold employment in an organization.
Each factor is considered to develop as a function of different antecedents and
to have different implications for on-the- job behavior.

 

 

Larry J.
Williams and Stella E. Anderson., (1991) has
conducted a study on “Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment As Predictors Of
Organizational Citizenship Behavior And In-Role Behavior” and states that previous organizational citizenship behavior
(OCB) research (a) has not demonstrated that extra-role behaviors can be
distinguished empirically from in-role accomplishments, and (b) has not
examined the relative contributions of components of job satisfaction and
organizational commitment to the performance of OCBs. Hierarchical regression
analysis found two job cognitions variables (intrinsic and extrinsic) to be
differentially related to the two types OCBs, but affective variables and
organizational commitment were not significant predictors.