Language sound, but also at the level of words

Language is a mean of communicating and expressing
thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken language emerged first by making
sounds that represent pictures which address the auditory system, then letters
and words that address the ophthalmic system of the human being. The necessity
of a writing system aroused from the need to record events and communicate it
with different people across the different period of time. Different writing
systems were developed across the word which varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806)
It relates, letters, syllables and sentence to communicate language through speaking
and writing.                                                                                                                                    

Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the child
starts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,
so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,
receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connection
between spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver the
meaning of the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.ca).                    
      

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Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”
(www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the proper
letter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com) .                                                                                                                              
 the English language is a
syllabic language and has its characteristics, it consists of twenty-six
letters written from right to left in a sideways top to bottom. In a perfect
language every letter corresponds to a sound, however, some of them correspond
with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).The inconsistencies in the English
orthography made English a challenging language to acquire even for children
who are mono-lingual English native speakers, because many inconsistencies were
not just at the level of the letter and their presentation of more than one
sound, but also at the level of words too.                                                                                         

 Historically the English language is a dialect;
its position was elevated and became an international language spoken by many
tongues as a mother language or second or foreign language, it came into
contact with English like Latin, German, French, Danish which brought many
words into the language and changing other words meaning pronunciation and use,
For example: the word colonel has French and Italian origin, In French, it is
coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, now it is written in the Italian way
and spelled in the French way. Building on what is previously written the
grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is opaque due to the loan words,
which were largely absorbed by the English language causing frozen spelling for
a massive amount of word which makes the prediction of its pronunciation and
writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)                                                        

There are
other difficulties that face not just children but adult too, for example some sounds
stayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through or
thought, other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like:
wrong and knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology,
Island. Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is
pronounced vegtable (www.thought.com),
and some English letters give many different pronunciations for the same letter
for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar ,morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived.(allington,mayor,2012)                                                                       
                       

 Studies in various aspects of language led to
development of new methods of teaching the English language based on different
perspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for its
efficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,
which depends on the need and the necessity for the child to express his
emotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken and
written language are closely related literacy is a part of a wider
communicative practice, and using literacy in this sense involves exchanging
knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential
role the way the children acquire language, and getting involved in these
practices that will help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way
like storybook reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,
and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)                                        

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the
society that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the
level of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,
and social class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how he
deals with the difficulties that he faces which is part of the child
psychology.                                             

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with
children in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary
texts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to
learn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning
and make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed in
bilingual communities that are affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level, and the bilingual children may have in common
impediments with native speakers an different problems in learning English for
example if their other language is written from right to left, not from left to
right they may start writing English from right to left, or they may think
about the subject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch
during writing.                                                 
                  

In the end every child has the right to have the best
of his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life and
having difficulties in learning and writing should be  treated starts as a little human with the
ability and the need to express his thoughts, ambitions ,furthermore, the right
to define himself as somebody with possibilities