Mitochondria possesses highly regulated double membrane architecture with an

are indispensable organelles whose primary function is to generate energy
currency of the cell- ATP1. It also accomplishes a
wide variety of functions such as Calcium2, Iron3, Copper4, Magnesium5 homeostasis, apoptosis6, thermogenesis7, heme and iron-sulfur cluster assembly8, synthesis of Nucleic acids9, and steroid syntheis10. Though it has become an inevitable organelle for the cell, the
majority of the proteins which help in aiding these functions are imported from
cytoplasm via mitochondrial targeting sequences and other mechanisms11, 12. The type of proteins
and their morphology varies according to the cell type, developmental stage and
environment13. The mitochondrion
possesses highly regulated double membrane architecture with an outer and inner
membrane respectively. The inner membrane can be further subdivided into inner
boundary membrane which opposes the outer membrane and cristae which protrudes
into the matrix14.  The cristae act as a harbour for the five
multisubunit complexes of the OXPHOS system. Recent evidences suggests a fact
that there is direct link between cristae shape and kinetics of OXPHOS system15.

 Mitochondria being the descendents of
?-proteobacteria they have their own genome enclosed in a double membrane which
usually exists as closed circular supercoiled double helix in the matrix16. Generally they exist
in multiple copies and encode its own rRNAs and tRNAs to encode a limited
number of proteins crucial for oxidative phosphorylation17. Close interrogation revealed
a fact that mitochondrial shows a phenomenal economy of organization. Their DNA
is compact (~16,569bp), with no introns and contains only 37 genes18.  Some genes have overlapping sequences. Despite
their small number, they are in high demand and transcribed at high rates. The
total  mtRNA represents about ~5% of
total cellular RNA in many tissues but as high as 30% in heart cells19.

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