of success is another concept that needs clarification. Though highly
resembling with the concept of ability belief, the expectancy of success was defined as a child’s belief about how
well he will do on forthcoming task, or how likely he is to achieve a desirable
outcome performing a given action, whether it is in the near or distant future.
Studies that looked at the expectation of
success in relation to math performance, found that one’s expectations of
future math performance predicted decisions about taking a mathematics course (Eccles et al., 1983). Thus,
the expectation of success significantly impacts
academic-related choices, and if low, can
lead to negative outcomes.
Along with expectation of success, subjective task
value has a direct effect on the achievement-related choices. Subjective task
value was identified as consisting of
several components. Those are attainment value (importance of performing the
task well), intrinsic value (enjoyment from performing the task), utility value
(how well the task performance fits into child’s future plans) and cost (that
is, how much performing the specific task
will limit the access to another more preferable task; and assessment of effort)
(Eccles et al., 1983; Battle, 1966). In the current psychological intervention, subjective task value will not
fall under the effect of the intervention.
However, as it has a well-established effect on achievement choices and
achievement itself (Chiu & Wang, 2008) it will be included in the
Lastly, achievement-related choices directly affect achievement
and performance, according to the model. These choices are conscious and
non-conscious decisions and their possible enactments with consideration of
expended time and energy (Eccles et al., 1983). Such choices typically
incorporate behaviour like being attentive in class or doing homework and certainly
impact grades attainment.
In this way, the model has explained how child’s
belief about the academic success has
impacted his intentions to succeed and resulted in behaviours related to
academic performance. Therefore, coming from a low-income family and holding a
belief of belonging to an underachieving group,
a child sets low goals and expectations to succeed. These goals and
expectations prompt child to disengage from class activities, resulting in low GPA.